Kidnapping In Kaduna State: A Case Study Of Some Selected Communities In Giwa Local Government Area.
kidnapping have become an issue of global concern. The spate of violent attacks by Bandits and kidnapers alike, as evidenced in the abduction and killing of civilians and military personnel, has plunged Nigeria, particularly Kaduna State into a state of insecurity. Extant studies on the challenges of Banditry and Kidnapping have attempted to elucidate on the destruction of lives, properties, loss of financial resources, general insecurity and the attendant political coloration to the menace of Bandits and Kidnapers. However, in spite of government’s counter insurgency measures, the banditry and kidnapping activities have continued unabated. This study examined the challenges of Banditry and Kidnapping in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted. The population comprised 210 military and security agencies personnel, religious leaders, traditional leaders, IDPs and local vigilantes selected Kaduna State in Northern Nigeria Total enumeration method was adopted. A validated questionnaire and structured interview guide were used for data collection. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs in the questionnaire ranged from 0.71 to 0.94. The response rate was 90.8%. Data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential statistics. Perspectives from the interviews were thematically analyzed. Findings revealed that internal security had a significant effect on Banditry and Kidnapping in Kaduna State, Nigeria (M = 4.87, SD = 0.790). The study concluded that internal security had a significant effect on Banditry and Kidnapping in Kaduna State, Nigeria. It was recommended that government should find out the causes of banditry and kidnapping in the selected states and provide a means of eradicating it security policies should be put in place and also set in motion in order to fight and prevent crime.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitations of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organization of the Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.1.1 The Concept of Slang
- 2.1.2 Brief History about Kidnapping in Nigeria
- 2.1.3 Causes of Kidnapping in Kaduna State
- 2.1.4 Banditry, Kidnapping and Internal Security
- 2.1.5 Chronology of Banditry and Kidnapping Attacks in Nigeria
- 2.1.6 Government Measures in Curbing Banditry and Kidnapping
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 2.2.1 Economic Theory of Kidnapping
- 2.2.1 Political Theory of Kidnapping
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Sources and Method of Data Collection
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validation of the Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.2 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
The primary responsibility of any government is the protection of lives and properties but the desired levels of security in Nigeria have been a mirage especially since the onset of the year 2007. Security is any mechanism deliberately fashioned to alleviate the most serious and immediate threats that prevent people from pursuing their values (Adebayo&Adepoju, 2018). Where security is lacking, it become a threat not only to the government but citizens as well. Lack of security of any form affects economic activities and also results to loss of numerous lives, psychological trauma, and internal displacement etc. The highest peak of insecurity is made visible through the process of holding someone against his wish and turning him/her into a property for bargaining is a phenomenon called kidnapping (Adofu& Alhassan, 2018).
Kidnapping in Kaduna State has become a major feature of urban and highway crime committed largely by high profile elite criminals in the cities and township on one hand and armed robbers/bandits on the other hand. Investigations by Mohammed, (2018), revealed that bandits kidnapped at least 100 people along BirninGwari Kaduna road and demanded 5 million ransoms. According to Akubor(2018), two Americans and two Canadians were on Tuesday January, 17, 2018 at about 6.16pm kidnapped in Kaduna State by armed gunmen. Consequently, a member of the lower chamber of the National Assembly, Garba Umar Durbunde was abducted at about 1. 48pm on May 31st 2017 at Jere, along Kaduna-Abuja road. He was released upon the payment of N10 Million ransom. The most audacious of kidnap incidences was when heavily armed Kidnappers blocked the Kaduna-Abuja highway for several hours and kidnapped over 50 persons. No hostage was allowed to leave without paying ransom; some paid as low as N50, 000 only ( Abdulrahman, 2017).
Residents of Sabon Gaya community along the Kaduna-Abuja expressway in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State recently appealed to the Federal Government to declare a state of emergency on the highway due to incessant kidnapping of travelers of innocent citizens. On November 13, 2017 villagers blocked the Kaduna-Abuja highway protesting the killing of the commander of the Civilian JTF in the area HarmaHalilin, by suspected kidnappers. On 21st November 2017 as confirmed by (Davidson, 2017), one ArdoNijiga who was travelling in a commercial bus when armed men suspected to be kidnappers struck at 6.30am at the Sabon Wuse Area along Kaduna-Abuja highway and kidnapped him and later killed him. Consequently, suspected kidnappers have killed at least 18 people in Rijana, a village along Kaduna-Abuja expressway for providing information to security agencies in January 2018. In fact, three police officers namely Aliyu, Sani and Beli have been arrested for allegedly kidnapping and abductions with one civilian who gives them information.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The violent crime of kidnaping is currently a global menace that has kept many residents in Nigeria without sleep as every person: male and female, young and old seems to command some kidnapping value within the country. According to a presidency source, Nigeria recorded 1177 cases of kidnapping in a space of 14 months from 2016 to 2017. While 525 suspects were prosecuted, 652 are still being investigated (Edet&Aniefiok, 2019). It ispertinent to state here that the fact that over 1000 persons were arrested as kidnap suspects within such a short time, speaks volume of the extent which the crime has erodes the security fabrics of the country. Kidnapping has taken an alarming dimension and as the incidences of kidnapping increase in Nigeria, various explanations have been adduced including harsh socio-economic conditions, cult group activities, and political rivalries among others with varying degrees of endorsement on one hand and condemnation on the other. In tune with this confusion, law enforcement agencies appear to be at a loss as to the best way to curtail this development.
In a communiqué by Idris (2017), the Inspector General of Police (IGP) attributes increasing rate of kidnappings in the country to weak laws saying the menace could conveniently be brought to a permanent end if the National Assembly comes up with stringent laws. He added that mere parading of suspected kidnappers by his agency without either taking them to law courts for prosecution or possibly sentencing to death had rather boasted the morale of the kidnappers in their nefarious activities. Consequently the IGP also complained of lack of adequate funds which has hindered the reinvigoration of the Police Force Forensic Laboratories. He said that the annual budget is a far cry from the actual requirement to address security challenges, especially violent crimes like kidnapping, armed robbery and terrorism in the country, and to maintain law and order (Yahaya, 2017). He however appealed to the people that the fight against kidnappers was a community fight and that tracking machine has been deployed to the state to assist in enhancing the police anti-kidnapping drive (Idris, 2017).
1.3 Research Objective
The main objective of this study is to examine kidnapping in Kaduna State: a case study of some selected communities in Giwa Local Government Area. Specific objectives include to:
- Examine the impact of kidnapping and banditry on internal security in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- Assess the causes of kidnapping and banditry in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- Evaluate measures to curb the menace of kidnapping in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the impact of kidnapping and banditry on internal security in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
- What of the causes of kidnapping and banditry in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
- What are the measures to curb the menace of kidnapping in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is significant to students and scholars in every field of endevour. The study will add to the previous knowledge of the menace of terrorism in the northern part of Nigeria in particular and Nigeria in general. The findings of this study would help provide a direction to the government to put measures in place to curb the problem of kdnapping.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the menace of kidnapping with respect to Kaduna State. The study covers the causes of kidnapping and banditry in Giwa Local Government area of Kaduna State. It also covers the impact of this menace of internal security in Kaduna State. Measures to curb the problem of insecurity in Kaduna State will also be covered in this study.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The completion time, which seems insufficient to complete this examination correctly and efficiently, is one difficulty that limits this study. The lack of resources on the topic, which seems to be very uncommon, further limits this study. The professors and students that took part in the research were not very compliant, which had a significant impact on the quality and scope of the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
An unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition.
A type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups. Banditry is a vague concept of criminality and in modern usage can be synonymous for gangsterism, brigandage, marauding, and thievery.
The unlawful confinement of a person against their will, often including transportation/asportation. The asportation and abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear: the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly (e.g. in the belief that it is a taxicab).
The act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories, generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats. Responsibility for internal security may range from police to paramilitary forces, and in exceptional circumstances, the military itself.
The practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or the sum of money involved in such a practice.
The state of having few material possessions or little income. Poverty can have diverse social, economic, and political causes and effects. When evaluating poverty in statistics or economics there are two main measures: absolute poverty compares income against the amount needed to meet basic personal needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter.
1.9 Organization of the Study
There are five chapters in this study, the first of which discusses the background, statement of the research problem, aims, research question, and research hypotheses as well as the study’s significance, scope, and limitations. Chapter 2 contains conceptual, theoretical, and empirical reviews. The study methodology is covered in Chapter 3. This chapter covers the research design, the study’s population, the sample size and methodology, the data collection source and method, the study’s instruments, the data analysis method, and the validity and reliability of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The results of this investigation are consistent with previous research. In recent years, the security of lives and property of residents of Northern Nigeria has significantly declined, negatively affecting both the elites and the masses, according to studies like those by Bulugbe (2014) on the impact of insecurity on socioeconomic development in that region. No one is unaffected, regardless of their political affiliation. Businesses are going out of business, stores are closing, and parents are removing their children from schools and moving them to locations that are deemed safer.
The menace of kidnapping in Kaduna State specifically kidnapping for the purpose of collecting ransom has become a very serious problem and a cause for concern among the citizenry. It has reached the extent that it calls for urgent attention and immediate measures by government to curbing the problem. One of the major ways that this can be done is by introducing laws that will mete out stringent punishment on the perpetrators. Consequently, there should be a means of fast tracking cases that involve kidnapping. It is pertinent to observe here that, worried by the increased and rampancy of the incidences of kidnapping in Kaduna State, there has been considerable progress made in this regard as could be seen by actions taken by the Kaduna State Governor, His Excellency Mallam Nasiru El-rufaiin collaboration with the police authority where bold measures were taken to clear the activities of kidnappers by providing patrol vans to all the security agencies in the state. The state Governor also budgeted N1.5 billion for the procurement and installation of CCTV cameras for monitoring and surveillance towards reducing criminal activities within the Kaduna metropolis. Similarly, the Kaduna State Governor has also budgeted N193 million for procurement of geoposition interceptor and location of GSM Unit System to check the trends and intercept/locate kidnappers’ GSM calls. And another N265 million for procurement of Drones/unmanned Aerial vehicles (UA) to identify location of kidnappers and armed robbers in forest reserves across the state and the establishment of a Forensic Laboratory to assist in determining substantial evidence in cases that proved difficult in the past. It is pertinent to state that in the 2017 budget alone the Kaduna State Governor allocated N2.6billion to support return of Federal Security Agencies in Kaduna State with communication and logistics and material with the increase focus on the threat posed by kidnappers in Kaduna State, especially the deployment of 90 patrol vehicles to patrol the 200 kilometers Kaduna-Abuja-Zaria highway. It is expected that activities of these criminals will reduce but until road users of these dangerous highways jitter the duration of the farming (Vanguard 24/06/2017. 3.09Am
Based on the above findings, the following recommendations are made: Government should find out the causes of banditry and kidnapping in the selected states and provide a means of eradicating it. Managers should ensure that a strong protocol is put in place in order to protect customer’s personal information as this will aid in preventing crimes.
To ensure that security awareness is maintained in the organization there should be strategies set aside by the governing bodies so they may aid in preventing crimes. Some security policies should be put in place and also set in motion in order to fight and prevent crime. To overcome the limitations of the study
Government should make kidnap a high-risk crime and a low-reward adventure. It is sad to make the point that Kidnapping in Kaduna State is a low-risk crime and a high-rewardKaduna State government must change the trend by making kidnap a high risk and a low venture.
The criminal justice system must be strengthened and effective to arrest, prosecute and give stiff-jail sentences; this will serve as deterrent to those thinking or planning an adventure in Kidnapping. There must be trust synergy collaboration and confidentiality of identity in intelligence gathering.
Job creation and generation for the citizenry especially the youths of Kaduna State will promote the fight against crime. When the people are gainfully employed and engaged, they would not need to commit crimes.
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