Job Satisfaction; Its Determinant And Relationship With Employee Productivity

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Job Satisfaction; Its Determinant And Relationship With Employee Productivity


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity using NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos as case study. Specifically, the study investigated the underlying factors that influence employee job satisfaction, the impact of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity and the implications of poor job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos. The survey research design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of employees of NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses was tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ productivity. The study also revealed that employees that expressed greater job satisfaction shows more engagement, motivation, and commitment to their work. Therefore, it is recommended that leaders of the organization should employee retention strategies. Also, create a motivating climate to increase productivity and clear reward system to all members of the organization. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Employees constitute a valuable asset for any organization, and it is in the best interest of every organization to extract optimal benefits from its human resources. Nevertheless, employees can only deliver exceptional performance when they experience satisfaction within the organization, a state achieved through job contentment and a sense of security. According to Golden (2019) the significance of employee job satisfaction extends beyond individual well-being to impact the overall success of the organization. Job satisfaction is the level to which workers like their work it is the difference between what employees’ expectation and what they receive. It is a general attitude towards the job; the difference between the amount of rewards employees receive and the amount they believe they should receive (Adekola, 2021). Additionally, morale, motivation and satisfaction concepts are used interchangeably. Similarly, there is a slight difference; the word ‘‘morale’’ refers to the collective attitude of a group of individuals forming the department /organization, is a collective construct however motivation and satisfaction are individual-oriented (Ringle,2022). On the other hand, motivation is the drive and struggle for satisfying wants and goals. It is the ‘‘contentment’’ enjoyed by an employee when his/her goals are achieved (Brown, 2018).In the same manner,job satisfaction is an elusive, even mythical, concept that has been increasingly challenged and refined. Both managers and researchers are working on job satisfaction and valid measure of job satisfaction is the best information about an employee. Thus, a huge community is concerned about the quality of job satisfaction including managers, employees an general public (Lee, M. and Koh, J. (2021)). Consequently, it is crucial for an organization to understand what employee exactly feel, think on their job and stage of satisfaction. Moreover, when organization recognizes the dissatisfaction elements among its employees based on the staff perception, there is a need to make strategies on how employees’ determination and dedication can be improved (Mira, M., Choong, Y & Thim, C. (2019). By this motion business outcome can be improved and the same time productivity is probably increased as well.

In conceptual sense, the term productivity is define as the effectiveness of productive effort, especially in industry, as measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input. similarly, productivity is thus of fundamental importance to the individual workers of whatever status, to the organization whether commercial or not the national economy at large and accordingly therefore, to the upliftment of the welfare of the citizens (Yesufu, 2021;Akinyele,2019). Also, according to Vu, H. M. (2020), job satisfaction is a critical issue for every organization because satisfied employees are reportedly known for good performance and vice versa. Several factors come together to determine the job satisfaction including the basic factor (pay, work, supervision, promotion, co-workers, and work environment), the demographic attributes of the employees and the broader social, organization, and human contexts constituting the totality of work environment (Saleh, I., Abu Afifa, M., & Alsufy, F. 2020). Dessler (2019) cited in Mbah and Ikemefuna (2022) refers to job satisfaction, ‘‘as the degree of needs satisfaction that is derived from and experienced on the job’’. He affirms to the ability of employees in an organization aspiration, feeling happy doing their job with the hope that their needs will be achieved. Also satisfied employees are known to show higher level work performance in organizations. Furthermore, every organization needs good relationships between employers and employees because they motivate workers to perform better and deliver more results (Vu, H. M.,2020). Also, the application of human relations in managing human resource is critical in today’s business competitive environment (Christen, Iyer & Sober man, 2018). Factors such as job satisfaction are achieved when there is a great working relationship between labour and management (Boshoff, C., & Allen, J.,2000). Although, organizations can have competent, qualified and motivated employees but if there is no peace and harmony at the workplace their performance will be in danger. However, creating a positive and supportive work environment can result in better performance, increased job satisfaction, and various other positive outcomes that ultimately benefit both the employees and the organization as a whole. Effective employee relations are crucial for a harmonious and productive work environment.

Furthermore, Fabi (2019), asserts that when it comes to organizational productivity, two things matter a lot, one being organizational justice and other is employee job satisfaction. However, a large number of researchers have studied different aspects of organizational justice and most of them have found out that if an organization fails to provide job security to its employees whether they are on contract or permanent member, then the level of motivation and organizational commitment in them decreases and both these things directly affect their job performance. On the other hand, job satisfaction comes when an employee is rewarded well, and is provided with those job tasks that are challenging yet interesting.

Additionally, organizational fairness has a strong impact on employees attitude and behavior. It has being observed that employees start to develop a positive attitude towards the organization when they realize that their organization is fair on them. However, an organization that is successful finds it difficult to determine whether its employees have high levels of confidence, teamwork, employee satisfaction, communication, and temptation so that they will be more motivated to fulfill their work responsibilities and meet the organization’s goals as a whole. People’s perceptions, attitudes, and feelings about their occupations are linked to their level of job satisfaction (Spector, 2021). According to Robbins et al. (2019), the investigators have defined job satisfaction as the employee’s overall demeanor and attitudes toward his work. Maintaining a positive work environment among white-collar staff may be extremely beneficial to any business, as contented individuals tend to do higher quality work with fewer absences and remain loyal to the organization. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to investigate on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

“Employee satisfaction” refers to a broad variety of topics, including as work-life balance, managing diversity, equal opportunities, and motives for professional advancement in addition to more modern issues like these (Saleh, 2020). It consists of the policies and initiatives created to ensure that workers are happy and productive. However, some organization in Nigeria seems to throw employees’ satisfaction behind them by not giving it special attention and priority, as a result, they are still struggling to accomplish the organizational goals and objectives due to employee’s low performance. Nevertheless, this has led to needless arguments in organizations, which has lowered output. Additionally, poor relationship between the organization management and employees within the organizations operating in the globally and locally markets has become the challenge.

Furthermore, the organization have so many employees, with some doing job unrelated to their discipline and or unattractive. This trend has created unsatisfied employees for the institution. Also, the management of the organization has complained of low productivity from some of its employees. Several effort have been employed by the management of the organization in improving the productivity of these employees. Thus, it is in the light of these that the study seeks to investigate on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity


1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity.

Specifically, the study will;

  1. Investigate on the underlying factors that influence employee job satisfaction in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos.
  2. Investigate the impact of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos.
  3. Investigate the implications of poor job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. What are the underlying factors that influence employee job satisfaction in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos?
  2. What are the impact of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos?
  3. What are the implications of poor job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos?

1.5 Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity will be revealed to various organizations, employees, business owners, management, media houses and  employees in this study. Employees will have the chance to express their personal views on job satisfaction and its impact on organizational productivity. They can also suggest actions the organization should take to enhance motivation. Also, the study’s results, along with recommendations from participants, will be shared with management, providing insights into the advantages of ensuring job security and boosting employee productivity. Additionally, the research will inform management across different organizations about the consequences of relationship practices between employers and employees. Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to an investigation on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is boarded on an investigation on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity. Empirically, the study will discus the underlying factors that influence employee job satisfaction, the impact of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity, implications of poor job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos. Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees of NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.
More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Job Satisfaction:

A feeling of fulfillment or enjoyment that an employee derives from their job.

Employee Performance:

The job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity using NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary of Findings

In this study, our focus was to examine on job satisfaction; it’s determinant and relationship with employee productivity using NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos as case study. The study was specifically carried out to investigate on the underlying factors that influence employee job satisfaction, the impact of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity and the implications of poor job satisfaction on employees’ productivity in NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were employees of NIGERIAN BREWERIES, Lagos State.


5.2 Conclusions

After conducting thorough investigations into the factors influencing employee job satisfaction, the impact of job satisfaction on productivity, and the implications of poor job satisfaction at NIGERIAN BREWERIES in Lagos, the study identified variety of factors influencing employee job satisfaction in NIGERIAN BREWERIES. These include but are not limited to leadership style, work environment, communication, recognition, compensation, job security, and opportunities for professional growth. Additionally, the study showed that there is a significant relationship between employee productivity and job satisfaction. Employees that expressed greater job satisfaction also showed more engagement, motivation, and commitment to their work. Also, the observed positive correlation implies that allocating resources towards strategies aimed at enhancing satisfaction with work may result in improved organizational productivity. Furthermore, factors such as increased absenteeism, higher turnover rates, low morale, and reduced commitment to the organization were observed among dissatisfied employees. These implications not only affect individual performance but can also have effects on the overall efficiency and success of NIGERIAN BREWERIES.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. NIGERIAN BREWERIES management should focus on employee retention strategies. This include competitive compensation packages, employee wellness programs, and creating a positive and inclusive workplace culture.
  2. Improve on the system of communication with their employee. Also, create a motivating climate to increase productivity and clear reward system to all members of the organisation.
  3. Offer opportunities for professional growth, training, and recognition programs can significantly boost their employees’ job satisfaction.
  4. In order to accomplish goals and objectives, management should clearly define structures and work processes. In this manner, a respectable level of employee production might be matched with the degree of job satisfaction.
  5. Generally, employees should be treated as the most valuable resource in public sectors. This is because of the success of any organization is determined highly by the effort and commitment of employees whom they are motivated to their jobs.

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