Job Evaluation A Tool For Wage / Salary Determination (A Case Study Of Nigerian Bottling Company Plc Aba)
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This work is dedicated to God Almighty the giver of knowledge and wisdom and his grace upon my life.
To my redeemer, comforter and provider – Christ the living God.
I acknowledge God’s Grace and that unto him, all things are possible.
I am also appreciating to a number of people who in one way or the other contributed to the successful competition of this work. Mrs. Mfon u. Inock her wonderful encouragement and sacrifices to see I succeed in life.
I must express my most sincere gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Okparaku Odoka, who patiently read through this work and offered all possible assistance, which made this project to be standard.
I am also grateful to my lectures especially o. Nwachukwu whose knowledge imparted contributed immensely to my success during my stay, as well as in writing this research work.
Most especially my pastor, Pst Emmanuel Etuk, my brothers Mac-Endiong, Inockifella, my sisters Ndifereke, Mendie for their supports, and prayers.
I express my since gratitude to my friends Samuel, Israel, Abel Blessing, Idongesit, Shakaouru Ami.
Finally to God almighty whose goodness and mercies have kept me through out my stay in school.
This research work is defined to study job Evaluation a tool for wage/salary determination using Nigeria Bottling Company Aba as a case study organizations.
In collecting data for the research, well structured questions were used. This questionnaire enabled the collection of primary data form 526 and 431 respondents for Nigerian bottling company respectively.
The table show that job evaluation/remains the major and indispensable tool for the determination of wage/salary structured of worker in case study organization.
The findings revealed that the concept of value added refers to the wealth created by the combined efforts of capital and how this wealth is proportioned among the various segments.
More so, job evaluation harmonizes the study structure by anchoring the disparity inherent in a wide range of different professions and skills.
It was recommended that job evaluation should be given equal attention as performance appraisals since workers performance are some time dependent on how well the job are enumerated.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgements iv
- Abstract vi
- Table of contents viii
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Preamble/overview 1
- 1.2 About the case study organization 4
- 1.3 Statement of the problem 6
- 1.4 Research questions 6
- 1.5 Aim/purpose of the study 7
- 1.6 Significance of the study 7
- 1.7 Scope of the study 8
- 1.8 Limitations of the study 9
- 1.9 Definition of terms 10
- 2.0 Literature Review 11
- 2.1 Introduction 11
- 2.2 Job Evaluation Techniques 14
- 2.3 Limitation of Job Evaluation 19
- 2.4 Reasons for using job Evaluation 21
- 2.5 Benefits of job Evaluation 22
- 3.0 Research design 25
- 3.1 Research method used 25
- 3.2 Definitions and description of population of study 25
- 3.3 Sources and methods of data collection 25
- 3.4 Sampling procedure and reason for using it 27
- 3.5 Determination of sample size 27
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of methods investigation 28
- 3.7 Methods of statistical Analysis 29
- 4.0 Data presentation and Analysis 31
- 4.1 Data presentation 33
- 4.2 Data Analysis 33
- 5.0 summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation 40
- 5.1 Summary 41
- 5.2 Conclusions 43
- 5.3 Recommendation 43
- Bibliography 46
- Appendix 49
- Questionnaire 50
In Nigeria and all over the globe, wage classification forms an essential part of the general condition of service that employers of labor make available to their employees. Employers sometimes fix wage artificially or negotiate with prospective emp0loyees individually and then strive hand to convince employees to accept that their salary are both fair and equitable.
Job evaluation seeks to determine the value of a job relative to other job within the same organization. The importance of that job to the organization as a whole can whereby be established so as to be placed in the appropriate position within an overall job grade structure. Job evaluation is not done in isolation.
Employee’s salaries should primarily be determined by the grade of job, followed by the worth of each job, and also considering the individuals worth. It is recognized that the three most important factors used in determining rates of job payments are
- What the firm can afford
- Existing market rates payable for similar work and
- The worth of the job in relation to corporate objectives.
In some business organization in Nigeria, relative worth of jobs are usually determined by the application of objective criteria or systematic principles, They are more often than not, determined by a host of extraneous and sometimes subjective factors such as kinship relationship, the impressions of top manager or the appearance or personalities of their prospect employees, the organizing power of trade unions, the bargaining skill of prospect employees, the impressions of management about the prevailing wage structure in the economy and so on. These approaches to the determination of wage rate may generate intense dissatisfaction among employees and invariably a fall in morale.
Job evaluation is an attempt to ascertain the worth of a job in order to attach monetary value to it.
This research is therefore intended to expose the instability inherent in firms who do not apply the job evaluation techniques in ascertaining or rather establishing their wage/salary structure and also recommend ways of ensuring proper wage/salary administration for effective performance.
In assessing the value of any job, management generally considers the general factors of skill, responsibility efforts and working conditions. But in addition to the above, the worker would add, the type of supervision received the congeniality of the work, the steadiness of the work, the amount of overtime etc.
Although job evaluation spurs grievance concerning wages, it covers serves to provide a definite frame work of wage structure.
This is why job evaluation should be handled with caution, it could either increase or damage workers moral.
This study will attempt to address issues relating to job evaluation likewise wage/salary determination. As a matter of fact, effort will be made in this study to provide answer to the following question.
- Are the fringe benefits relative to the employees output?
- Is there any equity between the salaries the workers of Nigerian bottling company receive and their work output?
- Is the job evaluation technique in use suitable for workers welfare?
1.2 About The Case Study Organisation
Nigeria bottling company (NBC) is the producers of coca-cola soft drink. Coca-cola is world leading soft drink sold in more than 1-5 countries. Not less than 250 million bottles are consumed everyday in all parts of the world form Argentina and New Zealand in the south to Canada in the north and Mexico to Nigeria.
The company first came into Nigeria in 1953 with the establishment of its first plant in Lagos. This marked the beginning of an interesting story of growth and development especially during the past 10 years.
Today, Nigeria bottling company is Nigeria’s number one bottler of soft drink, selling more than 6 million bottles per day, a figure, which is still growing with the continuity expansion of the existing 16 plants and with the opening of brand new plants in various parts or Nigeria.
The popular coca-cola ranks top among all the cola brands in the oligopoly whereas fanta is by far the number one best seller in the orange segment and sprite, the most widely sold lemon drink in Nigeria.
Other products bottled are fanta tonic, fanta soda and krest bitter lemon.
The success of coca-cola has brought with it the development of a number of sisters industries all countries all contributing to the growth of the economy such as the Delta Glass company in Ughili which supplies the millions of bottles required to keep the lathe bottling company in operation and crown products factories in Ijebu-Ode and Kano which manufacture the metal crowns to seal the bottles.
It is interesting to maintain that Nigeria bottling company plc is the largest manufacturer of carbon dioxide used to carbonate the favorite soft drink.
The organization is made up of different departments. There is the marketing (distribution department, the production department, administrative as well as total quality unit. Each of this department is under a department manger who reports to the plant manger.
1.3 Statement Of The Problem
Workers morale and zeal for increased production exist when they know their efforts are responsible compensated or rather when they notice a relative relationship between permanence and rewards unfortunately, they often complain that there is no equity between their output and compensation.
1.4 Research Questions
This research is aimed at providing answers to the following central issues addressed by the research work.
- Is there any equity between the salaries received by Nigerian Bottling Company workers and their productivity?
- Is the job evaluation method in use suitable for determining the value of job?
1.5 Aim / Purpose Of The Study
Job evaluation schemes are valuable management tools that dare stood the test or time and gradually, but increasingly employed by different organizations throughout the globe. It is against this background that this projects work is conceived, this research is aimed primarily at addressing the under listed issues.
- To determine whether the fringe benefits received by the employees are commensurate to the output.
- To determine management values and workers values in application of job evaluations
- To determine whether the working environment is suitable and acceptable by the workers.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
Like every other research work, this study would be handed to organization intending to ascertain the work of their employee’s job with the aim of employing appropriate technique of doing this.
It is also pertinent to not that the outcome of this study would help the personnel departments to perform their job more effectively.
Infact, it would also serve as a guide in general administrative planning in both organizations.
Finally, this study is also important to students for further research work.
1.7 Scope And Coverage Of The Study
The activities of two organizations under study are multidimensional. This research work is neither intended to cover the entire plants of Nigeria bottling company operation but it is aimed at focusing on specific areas within Aba with particular emphasis on the role of job evaluation in determining the wage/salary structure or organization.
For the purpose of this work attention would be paid on how the various staff in every unit in the organization remunerations are based, particular attention would be given to the activities of the personnel units of these organizations since the burden of job evaluation falls on them.
This does not mean that the other units would not be looked into job evaluation is not the same responsibility of the personnel unit and as such as cannot be done in separate or other section in the organization.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
In these limitations of the study, no research work can be carried out without certain constraints either in form of finance or logistics. This research is not an exception and as such so many factors served as constraints in the process of carrying out this research.
i. Information Constraints:
It is important that most organizations are sensitive about the use of information they give out.
It gives the accurate time required for the submission of this research work.
Financial resources are not readily available to carryout on extensive and through research and research work is a tasking exercise, which requires a lot of financial commitment, moreover, despite all the limitations, the researcher made effort to carryout a detailed and thorough research work on the subject matter.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
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So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.