Job Dissatisfaction And It’s Implication To Career Secretaries In Federal Establishments

Project and Seminar Material for Secretarial Administration

Job Dissatisfaction And It’s Implication To Career Secretaries In Federal Establishments


This research work was designed to examine job dissatisfaction and it’s implication to career secretaries in federal establishments in Enugu state. The study was focused on NEPA, as the case study.Seventy (70) of the secretaries were used as the sample of the study. The instrument for data collection used was the questionnaire, which consists of 5 research questions.

The result of the study showed that job dissatisfaction emanated from secretary’s job relationship and environment and have a lot of effects to secretaries but could be managed when a clear job descriptions and definition are made. Conclusions were based on the result of the findings while recommendations were proffered based on the conclusions drawn from the findings.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problems
  • 1.3 Purpose pf the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 The concept of dissatisfaction
  • 2.2 Lack of modern office facilities in organizations
  • 2.3 Effect of uncomfortable environments
  • 2.4 Some minor jobs which secretaries are reduced to undertake by their bosses
  • 2.5 Adequate languages secretaries lack that limit their jobs
  • 2.6 Summary of literature reviewed

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the study
  • 3.2 Area of the study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample/sampling techniques
  • 3.5 instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Decision rule

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Research question 1
  • 4.2 Research question 2
  • 4.3 Research question 3
  • 4.4 Research question 4
  • 4.5 Research question 5
  • 4.6 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Restatement of the problems
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 limitation of the study
  • 5.6 Implication for further research
  • 5.7 Suggestion for further research
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

The secretarial profession has come a long way; ranging from a stage of insignificance to a stage where and when it has become indispensable in the administration of modern office. The wadle of this noble profession saw the secretary as a mere “keeper of secrets”. This description of the secretary depicts more of his function than his person.

The next stage saw the secretary as “A person employed by another person, society or corporation for the purpose of conducting correspondence, keeping records and transacting other businesses”. He acts as an aid and the closest assistant to the Principal/Boss. He is the vehicle through which his boss’s or organisation’s actions are conveyed to the public in readable and discernable form.

The secretary had at sometime been regarded as a disposable employee who should be hired and fired at random. This view manifested in the case of Barnett. Hoarse and company vs. South London Tranways when the leaned judge, Lord Estier (1887), noted, that “A secretary is a mere servant, his position is that he is to do what he is told and no person can assume that he has any authority to represent anything at all … “. This position of the secretary remained unchanged as a George Witechurch ltd Vs. Cararagh (1902) and in Reuben vs Great Fougale Consolidated (1906) where Lord Macnaghten upheld the decision of Lord Esher.

The position of the secretary, however, has improved tremendously from what in the past. The enhanced roles and status of the secretary was give credence in Pamoran Development Ltd vs. Fidelis Funishing Fabrecs Ltd where Lord Denning (1971) ruled that:- “… but times have changed. A secretary is a much more important person nowadays than she was in 1887. She is administrative officer of the company. As regards is matters concerning administration, in my judgement, the secretary has ostensible authority to sign contracts on behalf of the company. Furthermore, of a company is hiring cars to meet its foreign customers at the airport, nothing to my mind is more natural than that the company would live those came though its secretary.

The important role of the secretary has been appreciated by even in Nigeria. Ovie Whisky (1978) said, “the constitutional Drafting Committee owes its greatest debt to members of the secretarial staff without whose hand work, patience and fore beagueen, its work would have made all the move difficult. The committee wishes to express its profound gratitude to its able secretary and his energetic assistants, … not only for the efficient manner in which they looked after the welfare of the members but also for providing exceptional secretarial services …, in particular for preparation of excellent records of discussions and conclusion”.

The secretary has arrived in the modern industrialized society of today, and so, dissatisfies’ or hygiene factors of Heizberg’s two factor theory have set in some of these ‘dissatisfies’ including company policy, and administration, quality of supervision, relation with supervisor/boss, relation with peers, salary, job security, personal life, working conditions and environment, status etc.

The impact of technical break through have further compounded the problems of the career secretaries in mechanism – the computer, because a sweet – bitter pill for the career security is government establishments. The computerization of the operations of most government establishments saw the exit of most career secretarial workload in the office at the very time when technology had not provided much for the performance of secretarial functions. Currently, the job done by may secretarial in the past, are conformably and more efficiently performed by a computers.

The career secretary’s relationship is a sophisticated office environment has shifted to “man – machine” relationship. You find the secretary all though the day’s work interacting and carasing with machines of all sorts. A situation where the secretary takes sloth and dictation from the boss in fast phasing out due to technology. Where dictations are given at all, dictating machines are used – still leaving the secretary to interact with machines.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In spite of the modernization of the office environment, the career secretary is still dissatisfied with his job. The causes of this job dissatisfaction are many and varied. They also have far – reaching implications on the performance of their secretaries.

Some of these problems exist within the office environment. Others have their roots outside the office environment. Emphasis will however, be placed on these problems, which exists with in the office environment and probably, a little of the ones which exist outside the office.

These problems affect the performance of the secretary and decreases her output. Sometimes, they lead to conflict between the boss and the secretary, above all, highly qualified secretaries hadly retire on the job and this affects the secretarial profession greatly within government establishment as one cannot rule out the fact that the secretarial profession is in high demand and very relevant to our social and economic development.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of the study are as follows:-

  1. To identify factors leading is job dissatisfaction among career secretaries.
  2. To find out the implications of job dissatisfaction among career secretaries.
  3. To find out whether work environment contribute to job dissatisfaction among career secretaries.
  4. To make suggestions aimed at eliminating job dissatisfaction among career secretaries.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will endeavour to answer the following research questions:-

  1. To what extent is the salary structure for secretaries a major cause of job dissatisfaction?
  2. To what extent is poor work environment the cause of job dissatisfaction for secretaries in federal establishments?
  3. To what extent is the boss/secretary relationship a major cause of job dissatisfaction in NEPA, Enugu?
  4. To what extent does lack of training and inadequate modern office equipment make job performance difficult hence job dissatisfaction among secretaries in federal establishments?
  5. To what extent does irregular promotion of secretaries cause job dissatisfaction?
  6. To what extent does lack of adequate career guidance result to job dissatisfaction?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study is significant as it will expose the cause and implications of job dissatisfaction among career secretaries with also equip practicing and would be secretaries with precautionary reasons within their ability to control problems which may likely come up in the discharge of their duties.

For the management of NEPA, Enugu, this study will enable them re-appraise their staff policy with a view to removing job dissatisfaction among secretaries.

Lastly, students in secretarial studies in tertiary institutions may find this project report very useful for further research on the secretarial profession.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study chose NEPA Enugu as a case study to find out factors leading to job dissatisfaction and its implication among career secretaries in Federal establishments.

1.7 Definition Of Term

Some terms have been used in this project, which require proper definition to aid understanding. They include:-

Job dissatisfaction:

Lack of satisfaction in one’s job.


Result enumerating from lack of satisfaction in one’s job.

Salary structure:

Remuneration/wage structure.

Boss/secretary relationship:

Understanding/co-operation existing between the secretary and the boss.

Promotion rate:

Frequency in the ride in rank of the secretary to a higher position.

Career counselling:

Proper and adequate enlightenment or guidance on one’s proposed profession.

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

This chapter presented a restatement of the problems, summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation. It also continued the limitation of the study, implication of the results and area for further research.

5.1 Restatement of the Problem

This study was earlier stated to investigate job dissatisfaction and its implication to career career secretaries in federal establishments in Enugu State. NEPA was selected as the case study. In the course of carrying out the duties, most professional career secretaries find themselves in an establishment that has low operating system which is not in a position to provide them with an atmosphere that would stimulate maximum efficiency and job satisfaction thereby creating a problem for them.

Besides, some career secretaries do not exceed certain grade-level in some business establishments; therefore, they are made to stagnate indefinitely on a particular grade-level.

The research was five (5) research questionnaires containing a total of thirty (30) questions, which sixty eight (68) was accurately answered by the respondents. It adopted the survey method, which was effective since the opinion of career secretaries working Federal establishment was sought. A population seventy (70) career secretaries was drawn from NEPA inEnugu State and because the population was relatively small, it was used as sample. This was done to reduce samplings bias and to get fair representation. The simple mean score on a four –point scale was used as method of data analysis and a mean score of 2.50 and above was accepted as significant.

5.2 Summary of Findings

Based on the findings the following observations and facts were revealed:

  1. It was found in research question one (1) that career secretaries working in NEPA need to understand the concepts of dissatisfaction, so as to know what dissatisfaction is all about and how to handle it effectively.
  2. It was found in research question two (2), that career secretaries working in private and government establishment in Enugu Sate should be aware of various modern office facilities career secretaries lack in order to suggest for a possible way of making them available in their offices.
  3. Research question three (3) revealed the career secretaries working in NEPA in Enugu State should know the effects of uncomfortable environment to career secretaries so as to prevent it from affecting them and the organization negatively.
  4. In addition, it was found in research question four (4) that career secretaries working in NEPA in Enugu State should to be away of various menial jobs career secretaries are reduced to undertake in order to find the remedies to them.
  5. Finally, the research question five (5) revealed those adequate languages career secretaries lack which limit their jobs in NEPA in Enugu State.

5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher made the following conclusions.

  1. Dissatisfaction among career secretaries emanated from the secretary’s relationship with her job and environment.
  2. Lack of modern office facilities in NEPA are likely to be the causes of problems and obstacles that associated with secretarial duties.
  3. However, it was also concluded that uncomfortable environment has a lot of effects to career secretaries and the organizations which could stagnate goals.
  4. Some career secretaries are not given their due respect and therefore are under paid as a result of some menial jobs they are being reduced to undertake by their bosses.
  5. Finally, it was concluded that English Language French Language, Central Native Language and Vernacular are the adequate Languages needed by career secretaries and indeed lack of any of the limits their duties.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the conclusions reached, the following recommendations are hereby proffered.

  1. The secretary should clearly make out a description of job jointly with the boss in order to reduce the amount of stress that may emanate from job relationship
  2. Career secretaries should be provided with necessary modern office facilities which include computers, photocopying machines, Fax Machines, Telephone etc. these will enable them put in their very best of service.
  3. Career secretaries should be provided with conducive working environments which include good offices, good relation with co-workers etc. to enable them carryout their duties effectively.
  4. They Should be well remunerated, motivated and provided with duties they are meant for, for growth of the organization.
  5. Finally, career secretaries should avail themselves the opportunity of learning all the languages necessary for career secretaries in order to excel is their profession.

5.5 Limitation of the Study

The researcher in the process of carrying out the research work encountered minor constraints which include: Lack of Finance and time factor. Due to time factor, the researcher could not reach out to other career secretaries working in other private government establishments in Enugu State. All these contributed to the delay in sourcing out materials for the research work.

5.6 Implications of the Results

As regards to the implications of the results, dissatisfaction to job can affect the performances of career secretaries and workers in every perspective if not properly handled.

However, this went further stating that job dissatisfaction can be avoided when all the necessary modern office facilities are provided. Based on these implications of the result the following were revealed:

  1. It was revealed that job dissatisfaction emanated from secretary’s relationship with job especially when necessary facilities are not provided.
  2. It was also revealed that bosses who force work load on their career secretaries without making sure that necessary facilities are available contributed to job dissatisfaction to career secretaries.
  3. Finally, it was revealed that some modern facilities like computers, Photocopier, Telephone, Printers etc. are very vital to career secretaries and therefore any of them lacking frustrates career secretaries.

5.7 Suggestion for Further Research

In the course of this study, it was discovered that career secretaries in other establishments were allowed to advance up to managerial level, but in some government ministries they cannot get up to level 13 as Chief Secretary, whereas other professions such as Public Administration, Accountancy, Marketing in the related fields do reach level 14.
The Researcher is therefore, advocating further research into what could be done to improve the lot of the secretary who seems frustrated because of no hope of advancing beyond a certain grade level in government ministries and parastatals.

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