Israeli – Palestinian Crisis The Role Of The UN (2000-2010)
This research work is concerned with Israeli-Palestinian crisis and the role of the United Nations during the crisis. nike air max pas cher The scope covered is between the year 2000 to 2010. bns gold The method used for data collection in this research is mainly from secondary sources like text books, journals, encyclopedia and the internet. nike air max 2016 zwart In the end, it was discovered that many attempts have been made to resolve the crisis between Israel and Palestine but has always met with failures due to lack of compromise by both communities. chaussures asics pas cher United Nations on the other hand has not lived up to expectations as the perception of the United Nations by the Israelis and Palestinians buttress this point.
The Palestinians believe the Security Council is responsible for the non-implementation of many resolutions that have been passed in favour of the Palestinians. The Israelis believe United Nations is devoted to Palestinians with committees and agencies devoted to Palestine like the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestinian refugees (UNRWA) However, all hope is not lost as United Nations still offer the best chance to lead the conflicting parties in this direction of a negotiated settlement as it includes Arab States and therefore can deliver the widest support from this constituency.
Background of Study
The Israeli-Palestinian crisis is the ongoing dispute between Israelis and Palestinians, an enduring and explosive conflict. The conflict is wide ranging, and the term is also used in reference to the earlier phases of the same conflict, between Jewish and Zionist Yishuv and the majority Arab population living in Palestine under ottoman or British rule. It forms part of the wider and generally earlier Arab-Israeli conflict. The remaining key issues are: mutual recognition, borders, security, water rights, control of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements Palestinian freedom of movement and legalities concerning refugees. The violence resulting from the conflict has prompted international actions from United Nations, United States and the European Union.
In its charter, conceived and written in 1945, the United Nations set high standards and espoused lofty principles, attempting to ensure that imperialistic intentions would not re-occur and that the use of force between states would become unnecessary. Its primary responsibility according to the charter is to maintain peace and security. It is equally necessary to note that the states that make up the United Nations (UN) agreed upon three major goals.
Firstly, the UN is dedicated to the building of conditions that will allow for friendly relations among people. This is to be realized though increased recognition of dignity and worth of human being. To this end, the United Nations have helped to raise the world standard of living and fight huger, disease and illiteracy in all concerns of the world.
Secondly, the United Nations seek to provide formal machinery for the adjustment of international tensions when the normal process of diplomacy proved ineffective. The United Nations afford facilities for rational decision and debate.
Thirdly, the United Nations is dedicated to the establishment of programmes of collective security for all its members victimized by aggression. The United Nations has established machinery whereby diplomatic, economic and military sanctions may be imposed upon states which have violated treaty commitments or international law.
Since 1945 of course, the geopolitical situation has changed enormously. Yet there seems to be a consensus that the United Nations has been weak, and sometimes completely incapable, in enforcing the charter’s principle. At times, observers have noted a lack of desire within the United Nations and its member states to reinforce and execute its own adopted resolutions. The United Nations has not met the expectations and high values it established following the end of World War II.
This has been most obvious with respect to Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The United Nations played a decisive role in the establishment of Israel, and managed to mediate an intermediate resolution to the revolts and riots which accompanied it, but has since failed in bringing about a comprehensive solution to the conflict that would accommodate the legitimate desires of Israelis, Palestinians and the neighbouring Arab States.
In view of this fact, this work will look at the various peace processes in the Israeli- Palestinian crisis and the roles and problems of United Nations in settling the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Statement of the Problem
The Israeli-Palestinian crisis is the on going dispute between Israelis and Palestinians. The violence resulting from the conflict has prompted international actions from United Nations, United States and the European Union.
The United Nations formed in 1945 to maintain international peace and security have not lived up to expectation as observers have noted lack of desire within the United Nations and its member States to reinforce and execute its own adopted resolutions.
Because of these problems, the following questions are deemed very essential for a research of this kind.
- How effective is United Nations in promoting world peace and security?
- Is the inability of the peace processes to restore peace the reason why the conflict continued?
Objective of Study
Specifically, the work intends to bring to limelight the presence of United Nations in the Middle East and consequently its roles and problems in maintaining world peace.
Its purpose is equally to find out how effective United Nations is in executing is functions as a peace maker especially as it relates to the Israeli-palestinian crisis.
Finally, the research intends to examine the various peace processes in the Israeli-palestinian conflict and how they failed to ensure peace.
Significance of Study
The importance of this research is to explore and expose some of the unknown truth in order to enrich our knowledge and understanding of the crisis our in the Middle East and the role played by the United Nations in the Crisis.
The research would equally be of immense help for students who will also like to embark on further research relating to Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Scope and Limitations
The period covered in this study is from 2000-2010. It will not be possible to mention all the actors in the Israeli-Palestinian crisis but only one will be considered especially the United Nations. The writer also faced problem of time and finance to carry out the research.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The Israeli-Palestinian crisis has lasted for so many decades. Attempts have been made to provide a lasting solution to the crisis but to no avail.
United Nations formed in 1945 to maintain world peace and security has not lived up to expectation as the Israeli-Palestinian crisis continues to exist.
The question that comes to mind is:
- How did the crisis start?
- Why did Israeli-Palestinian crisis persist despite the efforts of United Nations to resolve the crisis?
Therefore to embark on a research of this nature, the technique that was used was mainly secondary sources like textbooks, journals and from internet.
In the end, it was discovered that there is no tenable solution which could provide an end to the crisis considering the failure of the Camp David Summit 2000, the Roadmap for peace 2003, Annapolis conference 2007 and that Untied Nations has not been able to address the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as some states, especially the United States, have used their influence to keep the issue off the security council’s agenda.
The Israeli-Palestinian crisis is the ongoing dispute between Israelis and Palestinians. The conflict is also used in reference to the earlier phases of the same conflict between Jewish and Zionist Yishuv and the majority Arab population living in Palestine under Ottoman or British rule.
Many attempts have been made to provide a lasting solution all to no avail. For instance, the Oslo Accords (1993) led by Israeli officials led by Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leaders led by Yasser Arafat to find a peaceful solution. The crux of the Oslo agreement was that Israel would gradually cede control of the Palestinian territories over to Palestinians in exchanger for peace, but failed due to the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin and because Arafat and Ehud Barak could not reach agreement.
Again the Camp David Summit (2000) which could not provide tenable solution which would satisfy both Israeli and Palestinian demands, even under intense United States pressure.
The Roadmap for peace proposed in 2003 by the Quartet: the United States, Russia, and the European Union and the United Nations. However, the Roadmap has never progressed past the first phase.
Annapolis conference of 2007 which provided a framework for a solution to the conflict has not been able to provide solution as Israelis and Palestinians have not reached a formal agreement and conflict continues.
Finally, United Nations was formed in 1945 to maintain peace and security. Yet, its performance since its inceptions has been weak and the UN has rarely been able to enforce its charter’s principles into desired actions. This has been most obvious with respect to the crisis in the Middle East as United Nations Security Council which has the primary responsibility for the ma maintenance of international peace and security according to the charter has not been able to address the Israeli Palestinian conflict. Some states, especially the United States, have used their influence to keep the issue off the council’s agenda.
Palestinian and Israeli perception of United Nations buttress the point that United Nations is not efficient to resolve the conflict. Palestinians ion one hand believe that many of the resolutions that have been passed in the General Assembly and the Security Council are never enforced by the United Nations because of the composition of the security council, which includes the United States and other Western powers as permanent members with the right to veto any motion that is brought to the council’s attention. Palestinians believe that the United States is exercising its veto power unevenly in Israel’s favour by vetoing any initiative that could be seen to be impacting Israel’s interest in a negative way.
Israel on the other hand has found it hard to accept the United Nations claim to be a neutral mediator as many United Nations committees and agencies are devoted exclusively to what is known as the ‘Palestinian Question’ like the special Division for Palestinians’ Rights (DPR) which I s concerned with only Palestinians.
However, there is still hope that United Nations is better positioned to perform its role as it includes Arab States and it is the only organization which can deliver the widest possible support from this important constituency.
No solution to the conflict will be durable unless it is widely supported, and only and United Nations can bring about the breadth and depth of support that is needed in order to make any agreement stick.
In order to end the Israeli-Palestinian crisis the following recommendations are considered necessary
The followers should elect leaders who will not give up on their dreams to deliver their own people to compromises that must be made in order to reach a solution.
Actors from the international community should seek to create forums and spaces that promote the exchange of ideas within and between Israeli and Palestinian communities with regard to peace and the means to achieve it. This not only raises the awareness of each other’s grievances but also allows for the formation of equal and strong networks in spaces where ideas are voiced without consequence.
Reconciliation should be prioritized within the Israeli and Palestinian communities as preparation for cross-cultural reconciliation, with a view toward peaceful coexistence. Historical and psychological aspects of ethnic conflict tend to defy traditional diplomatic attempts to resolve them. There is a need for activities that create and supplement an environment that fosters those notions of peace and healing in the face of existential fears and political circumstances that makes reconciliation appear a bleak possibility.
United Nations Security Council should increase the permanent members to include countries from Africa, Middle East, and South America to prevent marginalization of weaker countries by stronger countries like United States.
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