Isolation Of Microorganism Associated With Deterioration Of Bananas Fruits
Banana fruits are highly perishable and affected by different microbial contaminates because ripe bananas are very perishable. One of the most important factors causing great economical loss of banana fruits is postharvest fungal diseases caused by lack of proper handling along postharvest chains. In line with this, the study was carried out to examine the isolation of micro-organisms associated with deterioration of banana fruits. The study was carried out in Burukum market of Markurdi Assessment was carried out using purposive sampling to select the study area, followed by simple random sampling to collect information on handling practices through observation and interview using pretested questioners.
The survey result revealed that losses of banana fruits due to spoilage and physical injury were common problems for all fruit vendors. Practices such as lack of sanitation, temperature management, and improper packaging and transportation problems were identified among the common causes for observed losses. A total of 48 fruits were purposively selected from open market, wholesales and retailers and fruit damage, disease incidence, disease severity and identification of diseases causing fungal pathogen were conducted under laboratory. The highest fruit damage (56.2%) was recorded in sample taken from retailers’ shop, and the associated disease incidence and severity were 54.2% and 34%, respectively. Morphological identification of pure culture revealed that anthracnose caused by Colletotrichummusae and crown rot caused by fusarium spp. are the most important disease causing agents and result in large percentage of fruit loss in Burukum market of Markurdi
Banana is a long curved fruit which grows in clusters and has soft pulpy flesh and yellow skin when ripe.There are about 1000 varieties of bananas in the world. Banana is an edible fruit botanically a berry, produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries bananas used for cooking may be called plantains. The fruit is variable in size, colour and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe, (Mwan et al., 2007).
In the developing world, banana is a major staple crop of considerable importance. Most producers and consumer of banana determines the quality of the banana by the colour of the peels. The colour of the fruit could serve as an indication of the state of deterioration, disease and/or confirmation (Crane et al., 2005).
1.1 Background of the study
In 2013, Canadians spent 875 billion on food, the largest share was spent on fruit production.
The global fruit processing industry has experienced consistent increased demand over the last five years, for processed fruit and fruit products and consumer spending has increased. Demand has grown particularly faster in developing economies as industrial growth has translated into greater urbanization, higher percental income and expansion in the size of the middle class has grown it has demanded larger quantities of higher quality more diverse food. Increase consumption of fruits can be attributed to more household becoming health centered (CSA, 2004).
Microorganisms, natural disaster such as earthquakes etc. has cause a substantial damage to fruit production and has naturally affected the Global fruit production.
The quantity of bananas product in Nigeria has not been estimated. However it is known to be produced in varying amount within the following states: Abia, Awkaibom, Anambra, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Enugu, Kaduna and Ondo (FOS, 2015)
Because of the massive production of banana fruit and poor storage and handling process, leads to spillage of banana fruit during the post-harvest period, (CSA, 2004).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Because of the world wide massive production of banana and as result of poor storage facilities this leads to large waste of banana due to spoilage
Microbial associated spoilage mostly is due to contamination from external sources during post harvest practices as a result of transport to the market or during storage of the fruit.During the ripening process, there are gradual series of changes in the colour of the banana from green to yellow. One should be able to distinguish between spoilage and ripening of banana.
Most banana affected with microorganisms (fungi or/and bacteria) usually get spoilt most at times at the middle of the ripening process or when the banana has become ripe.Banana fruit can be contaminated by microorganisms through skin penetration, natural opening or mechanical damage. There are two main microbes (Fungi and Bacteria) involve in spoilage of banana, which reduce the quality of the banana fruit causing the fruit to be consideration and unmarketable. The storage life of banana fruits can be improved using low temperature , 90% humility, removal of ethylene storing in 5% CO2 and 3% oxygen at 280c, use of chemicals and irradiation, use of packaging materials and fruit processing.
There is highly consumption of banana in Nigeria also high loss due to spoilage.
The study centre on microorganisms associated with spoilage in fresh and spoilt banana. Thus this study will provide a data base on microbial spoilage of banana. Microorganism
1.4 Aim of the study
To isolate microorganism associated with deterioration of bananas fruits and to assess common ways that have used to improved the shelf life of the fruit sold in Makurdi Benue State.
1.5 Specific objective of the study
- To isolate and identify micro organism associated with spoilage fresh Banana fruits in Makurdi.
- To isolate and identify micro organism associated with spoilt banana fruits sold in Makurd.
- The distribution of spoilage micro organisms among markets in Makurdi. Microorganism.
- To determine the physio chemical parameters of banana pulp.
Conclusion And Recommendations
Banana fruits are highly susceptible to mechanical injury owing to their tender texture and high moisture content. If they are exposed to undesirable environmental conditions during handling, the tissue will soften and easily bruise, causing rapid microbial deterioration. In the study area, quality and safety assurance problems such as lack of temperature management, uniformity of quality within containers, sanitation problems in the market, transportation‐related problems, careless handling during loading and unloading were identified as the main factors, which favored fungal pathogen development and associated banana fruit losses. Disease intensity had similar trends with percentage of fruit damage with more damage, and infections were recorded in retailers’ shop. The percentages of fruit damage were as high as 56.2%, and the associated disease incidence and severity were 54.2% and 34%, respectively, in retailers’ shop. Colletotrichum spp. and Fusariumspp were identified as the most important fungal pathogens causing fruit loss in Burukum market of Markurdi Mechanical injury due to mishandling along supply chains and sanitary problem in the market could be the possible causes for observed fungal pathogens. In order to reduce mechanical injury and associated microbial deterioration, a close integration of all stakeholders along the value chain of banana fruits becomes necessary.
For the organically produced banana to be well developed and compete favourably on the international and local markets following recommendations on the appropriate postharvest practices are made:
The Ministry of Food and Agriculture should support the small scale organic fruit and vegetable farmers with adequate improved planting materials, packaging materials and proper transportation and storage facilities.
To increase the level of awareness of producers and marketers especially, small scale farmers and marketers on the effect of good postharvest practices on quality of organic fruits , the Directorate of Crop Services is recommended to organize regular in service training for Agric. Extension Agents in the fruit and vegetable producing districts with up to date knowledge and skills on postharvest management of these produce.
To ensure that producers supply regular and high quality organic banana to the consuming public, it is recommended that small scale farmers and marketers linking with the large scale organic producers/ exporters should learn more about improved practices especially the postharvest aspect on organic fruits and vegetable management on their fields and also serve as out growers for the large scale producers and exporters.
It is also recommended that, further studies be carried out inMakurdi to determine the effect of verious methods of enhancing ripening of banana on the quality of the fruit.
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