Isolation And Identification Of Microbes Associated With Spoilage Bread

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Isolation And Identification Of Microbes Associated With Spoilage Bread


This study investigates the various molds involved in spoilage of bread include Aspergillus Fumigatus, A. Flavus and Candida Albicans. Bread is a food product that is universally accepted as a very convenient form of food that has desirability to all population rich and poor, rural and urban. Its origin dates back to the Neolithic era and is still one of the most consumed and acceptable staples in all parts of the world. Rope spoilage is a bread disease consisting of the bacterial decomposition of the breadcrumb. Spoilage organisms are heat-resistant spores of bacteria belonging to Bacillus genera, which survive the baking process. Members of the Bacillus genus that bring about bacterial spoilage of bread are known as rope. This is of major economic concern to the baking industry. The aim of this project is to assess the safety (microbial) and quantity of food widely appreciated throughout the world because of the ease in which infection can be spread.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Bread in one form or another has been one of the principal forms of food for man from earliest times. Human have eaten some form of bread since the Neolithic era when cereal grains were crushed and mixed with water form a thick paste that could be cooked over the fire and consumed. The Egyptians in approximately 2600 BC were lucky enough to discover the uses in leavening bread. Further back in the Stone Age, people made solid cakes from stone crushed barley and wheat. A milestone used for grinding corn has been found that is thought to be 7000 years old.
According to botanist wheat, oats, barley and other grains belong to the order grasses. Nobody has yet found the wild form of grass from which wheat as we know it has developed bread is known to be one of the most widely eaten foods. It provides a large amount of energy and protein than any other food and it was referred to as the staff of life (Scheer and Synthia 2006) bread in one form or the other is eating almost everywhere in the world. The process of making bread is by baking dough mixing it with water and milk. In the western countries, bread baked is mainly made in form of waves or roll made with wheat flour.

In some parts of the world people eat the crisp sheet of bread called flat bread. Flat bread is made either form such grains as barley, corn, oats, rice, rye and wheat or from flour milled from these grains (James and Judith, 1986). In most parts of the world, people use hand in making bread. However, in the industrialized countries most bread is made by machine in commercial bakeries. The early studies of protein, which for a long time was considered marginally as a source of protein for man. It was however later discovered that it is by far more nutritious than was earlier believed. When wheat foods are the principal sources of calories in the diet, studies show that they provide ample protein for growth and health primarily bread as a source of protein can maintain an excellent nitrogen balance over long period of time (Pomeranz).

Yeast are well distributed over the surface of the earth. They are particularly abundant in substances that contain sugar such as the rhedora of flowers and the surface of fruits. They are also found in the soil, in milk the vegetable part of plant and other habitats. Yeast are easily spread by wind currents, insects and animals and thus are ubiquitous in nature (Gilbert, 2018). Saccharomyces, which is the most important genius of yeast involved in bread making, has been described as “the oldest plant cultivated by man”. Yeast are used to produce gas essentially carbon dioxide and alcohol which evaporates during baking (Pomenranz and Shellenberger, 2007).

The industrial important of yeast is due to their fermentative and oxidative respiration reactions. Air stimulation oxidative respiration and growth of yeast, and it is used in large- scale production of yeast for fermentation including bread making (Dziezak, 1991). Not only are active yeast used in fermentation but in active yeast referred to as dry yeast are sources of nutritional and flavor compounds.

An important criterion for commercial yeast is acceptable resistance to drying: manufacturers of commercial yeast, with better strains and improved dying technology have developed highly active dry yeast products for different baking application. These more recently developed yeast. The improved drying technology produces yeast particukes that are very porous that imparts the ability to rehydrate rapidly (Dziezak, 1991).Baking has been many cultures’ favorite technique for the production of snacks, desserts, and side dishes to meals for many years.

Nowadays, baking is well known as the method for producing sweets and all sorts of wondrous appetizing pastries. In the old days, the first incident of baking occurred when humans took wildgrass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed everything together, turn in itinto a kind of broth-like paste.

The paste was then cooked by pouring it onto a flat, hot rock, resulting in a bread-like substance. Later, this paste was roasted on hot embers, which facilitated considerably the bread-making process. According to existing records, the Egyptians already had bread since 2500BC and most probably learned the process from the Baby lanais. The Greek Aristophanes, around 400 BC, recorded information that tortes with patterns and honey flans existed in Greekcuisine. Dispyrus, a Greek sweet prepared by the Greeks around that time, resembling a donut made from flour and honey, shaped like a ring and soaked in wine, was eaten when hot (Tanis).

The production of bread and other bakery products gradually evolved from a primitive, artisanal industry into a large-scale, modern manufacturing industry, generating billions of dollars in revenue and employing many thousands of personnel and resulting in huge profits of many thousands of Euros worldwide (Smith et al., 2004).Hassan (1997) claimed that global consumption of bakery products and cereals has augmented dataaveragerate of 25% per annum since1970 and they are consumed more than any other food source in the daily diet. This sustained growth has been driven by consumer demand for convenient, premium baked goods that are fresh, nutritious, conveniently packaged, and shelf stable. Furthermore, this enhanced demand is being addressed by various new processing and packaging technologies, such as modified atmosphere packaging(MAP), which has considerably augmented the availability and prolonged the shelf life of a great variety of bakery products. An increase in in-store bakeries and a new interest in “organic,” ethnic, and art is antype bakery products have recently been reported (Smith et al., 2004).

Taste / Flavour

Most of the flavour in bakers’ bread come from ingredients used and these changes have during baking. If enough time is given baking for bacteria to grow they may add to the flavour as may the yeast to a lesser extent. Flavoring substances so developed may include alcohol, diacetyl, aldehydes, acetonin and is alcohol and acetic lactic and succininc acids and their eaters (Frazier, 2005).

1.1 Aims and Objectives

The need to assess the safety (microbial) and quantity of food is now widely appreciated throughout the world because if the ease in which infection can be spread these processes.

The complete baking process ordinarily destroys all bacteria cells, yeast and mold spores of the ropy from foaming or other bacteria and it has been reported that mold spores in proofer cloths in bakeries can hold up enough heat resistance to survive baking (Jones and Judith, 198). Also, bread contains enough moisture for microbial activity and is therefore subjected to spoilage.

The parameter which determine the microbial numbers and types include: the microbial quality of the food in its raw or unprocesses state, the sanitary condition under which the food was processed and handled, the environment from which the food sample was obtained, the adequacy form subsequent parckaging, handling and storage conditions of the product aimed at maintaining low micro flora level (Jay, 2014).

Bread due to its nutritious nature highly susceptible to heavy microbial contamination and possible involvement in food poisoning.This is mainly attributed to the fact that source of contamination of bread can be from the processing equipment, dirty containers as well as wrapping material. Due to the fact the bread is mainly packaged by hands this can enhance contact with food poisoning organisms such as staphylococcus aureus, which is quite often found in human hands (Elliot, 2015).

This project work is aimed at losing microorganisms present in different samples of bread obtained from different areas within Zamfara metropolis and to also assess the bread microbial load as well as its pH.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Heavy microbial contamination Spoilage stands for any change in food condition that makes it less appetizing at consumption time. The spoil age problems of bakery products in spoilage could be further classified or subdivided into the following:

  1. Physical spoilage (moisture loss, staling)
  2. Chemical spoilage (rancidity)
  3. Microbiological spoilage (yeast, mold, bacterial growth) (Hasan, 2001)

Chapter Five

Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.0 Discussion

Result show that pathogenic organisms are capable of containing loaves of bread being sold in different areas with Talata Mafara metropolis. This can be attributed largely to the boor hygienic conditions the bread is subject to during packaging or in the hands of the retailers who in the cause of cleaning the bread hold it with their bare hand (unclean) and usually use rags that are often dirty in cleaning the bread. The sanitary condition of the environment also plays a factor in containing the bread. On the other hand, some spores of the microorganisms are capable of withstanding high temperature ad this helps them in surviving the baking process. The significance of the presence of these organisms to the consumers is that incidence of food borne disease will be experienced.

The fugal isolates i.e. aspergillusflavusare known o produce aflatoxin. There is considerable information that implicates aflatoxins with human illness (George, 1987). The aspergilla are common contaminates of organic materials and soils. They are found on fruits, vegetables, stored grains, peanuts and other food products.

5.1 Recommendations

It is necessary to establish some focus of health guideline programme that will make it desirable for bread bakers (commercial) and held reduce the rate and degree of processing and post processing contamination of bread. Those selling bread whom are mostly local women villagers and children should be enlightened on the dangers of contamination.

Sanitation of both environment of preparation of bread making and the equipment employed and also on the packaging and handling of bread after it has been manufactured. This would help in reducing the chances of bacteria contaminants and fungi getting into the food.

5.2 Conclusions

Form the result of this study it has been concluded that the bread sold within Talata Mafara metropolis contains potential spoilage fungi and bacteria. Their presence indicates on unhygienic handling during production and processing or during packaging and by the sellers and since the safety and keeping quality of foods are related to the microbial load of its content some standards have been proposed for bread manufacturers and some of these standard have been adopted. It is therefore to constantly investigate the microbial load breads exposed to unhygienic condition during processing or after.

The implementation of strict standards for bread producers is for the consumers’ safety and protection form unnecessary food toxicity hazards as well as from deteriorating products.

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