Isolation And Identification Of Bacteria Associated With (Tooth Ache) Dental Caries And Bleeding Gum And The Effect Of Some Tooth Pastes

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Isolation And Identification Of Bacteria Associated With (Tooth Ache) Dental Caries And Bleeding Gum And The Effect Of Some Tooth Pastes


Abstract


Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with dental caries (Tooth ache) and bleeding gum and the effect of some tooth pastes (Macleans) was evaluated using a mouth swap collected from a patient at dental school Trans Ekulu Enugu, and three tooth pastes collected from Ogbete main market Enugu. The three tooth pastes are close up, Dabur herbal tooth past and oral B. the mouth swap was cultured using Nutrient medium and MacConkey medium. The bacteria organisms isolated were Streptococcus mutan and Lactobacillus spp.

The chief dominant bacteria causing dental caries and bleeding gum isStreptococcus mutan. based on the analysis the inhibitory effect of oral B is the highest since it have up to 7.omm clear zone followed by Dabur herbur tooth paste which also have clear zone of about 4.2mm. Close up also have effect on tooth ache since it have about 3.0 clear zone. Therefore the use of these three tooth pastes can reduce or core dental caries (tooth ache) and bleeding gum.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Tooth ache (dental caries) usually refers to pains around the teeth primarily occur as a result of a dental condition. Tooth ache is mostly caused by tooth problems like; dental cavity, a cracked tooth, an exposed root or gum disease. Dental caries (also known as tooth decay or cavity) results in tooth ache. It is an infection of bacterial origin that causes demineralization and destruction of hard tissue (enamel, dentin and cementum), usually by production of acid by bacterial fermentation of the food debris accumulated on the tooth surface. If this remineralization exceeds, saliva and other demineralization factors such as from calcium and fluoridated tooth pastes, these hard tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries ie cavities, holes in the teeth.

The bacteria most responsible for dental cavities are the mutants streptococci most prominently Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus Sobrinusand Lactobacilli. If left untreated, the infection or disease can lead to tooth pain, tooth loss and infection.

John et al (2009), Bleeding gum generally indicates gum disease or risk of gum. This occurs when gums get swollen and tender either due to infection or irritation, they can form bleed plague buildup on gum causing bacteria to grow in the gum. This leads to gingivitis or inflammation of the gums. Gums can also bleed due to imitation caused by chewing certain foods, improper brusting, Hormonal changes during pregnancy, improperly fitted dentures, thyroid disorders, Leukemia and bleeding disorder.


1.2 Aim and Objective

  1. To know or determine the bacterial organisms associated with toot ache (dental caries) and bleeding gum.
  2. To be able to isolate those bacterial organisms that causes bleeding gum and dental caries.
  3. To know the effect of some tooth pastes especially (maclean on the tooth problems.
  4. To educate people (both young and old) on how to take proper care of their teeth and maintain a good oral hygiene and make a wise choice of the type of food to go for so as to maintain a healthy teeth.

1.3 Statement of Problem

The high rate of dental damages and bleeding gum among people of all ages. These damages have caused a lot of loss of teeth, eruption of the affected teeth and even change of colour of teeth among the young beautiful and handsome youths and old adults. Many old people in the vikages cannot comfortable chew hard, hot, and cold foods because of dental problems. Some young people whose teeth have a bad look cannot boldly open their moth publicly and talk. Yet the cause of the high rate of these dental damages was not clearly understood and hence, the topic. To determine and isolate those bacteria that are capable of causing dental problems (tooth ache), particularly dental caries and bleeding gum.


1.4 The Significance of the Study

This work is highly beneficial to those who suffer from dental caries (tooth ache) and bleeding gum by providing a guild on how to control the disease and stop further spread and damages. Those who are at risk of getting this diseases because of their choice of food and poor oral hygiene, thereby exposing their teeth to bacterial contamination. They are educated to reduce the frequency of their surgar intake as this is the cause of dental problems foods like vegetables, cheeses, milks, yogurt etc are preferable. The world at risk can also maintain proper oral hygiene by brushing and flushing their teeth every morning and at night before bedtime and possible after every meal. People who just pick any tooth paste without considering its composition or content can now look for those tooth pastes that have fluoride content and those produced from natural herb extracts.

The knowledge of the type of micro-organisms associated with dental caries and bleeding gum will help to find out adequate drugs that can quire the diseases.


1.6 Limitations of the Study

There is lack of adequate financial support which resulted in some difficulties in carrying out the practical, such problems are buying of materials needed for carrying out the practical, transportation the Laboratory where the practical is being carried out and provision.

Also during the collection of the sample, some micro- organization in the mouth and those around the teeth were introduced in the sample and as the suspected micro- organisms were growing these surrounding micro- organisms also grew and there was difficulty in differentiating between them.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The result of the isolation and identification of the bacteria associated with toothache (dental caries and bleeding gum and the effect of some tooth pastes (macleans) was obvious that streptococcus mutan and lactobacillus causes dental caries and bleeding gum table 1 shows the morphology and grams reaction result and this shows both gram positive coccilacteria. Lactobacillus and streptococcus mutan.

Table 11 show biochemical test result of the organisms which confirmed that the bacteria responsible are streptococcus mutan and lactobacillus spp. Table 111 shows that the higher zone of inhibition is 3.0mm. in table v the oral B tooth paste have high effect on tooth ache and bleeding gum than other tooth pastes since it have the highest zone of inhibition of 7.0mm followed by daburherbal toothpaste (Table iv) which have zone of inhibition of 4.2mm shows that it have high effect on dental caries and bleeding gum the table listed shows that the higher the concentration the more effective the tooth paste will be and so the more the clear zone. In agreement with nelson (2003), oral tooth pastes are found to have immernsed effect on dental cries and bleeding gum.


5.2 Conclusion

From the result obtained in this work, the organization responsible for this disease are both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and they are Streptococcus mutan and Lactobacillus respectively. There is high effect of some tooth pastes with high fluorine such as oral B and Dabur herbal tooth paste and more than those with low fluorine content. Tooth pastes are therefore very important in maintaining a healthy and strong teeth.


5.3 Recommendation

Having gone through this practical work the following points are therefore recommended;

  1. Dental practitioners should help and enlighten the public on the important of using the tooth pastes with high flourid content and not just to pick any tooth paste and use this will help and improve their dental health.
  2. Adequate mouth wash is a Dvisable this should be done every morning and night to remove pathogenic organisms found around the tooth.
  3. Anybody suffering any type of tooth ache should rush and see a dentist or periodontist such that they will Diagnose the adequate treatment to remedy the pains.

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