Isolation And Identification Of Bacteria Associated With Blood Infection

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Isolation And Identification Of Bacteria Associated With Blood Infection


Abstract


Bacteria blood infection (bacteremia) is the presence of viable bacteria and their toxic chemicals in the blood. Blood stream is normally a sterile environment. Therefore the presence of pathogenic organism in the blood is abnormal and can be referred as blood poisoning. Bacteremia occur when species from Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria organism such asStaphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coliand many other species swim into the blood stream and releases their toxin which causes many life threatening symptoms in the body.

These bacteria organisms invade the blood stream through the body portal of entries such as genital tract, mouth, nose and anus, when these body parts are exposed to contaminated environment and open toilets. They can also find their way into the blood through simple body cut or wounds. The symptoms of bacteremia include fever, headache, increase in body temperature etc. The method adopted for isolation and identification of bacteria blood infection is aseptic blood culture techniques, Gram’s staining and biochemical analysis. Treatment of bacteremia is based on susceptible antibiotics sensitivity test carried after diagnosis. Prevention and control measure is abstinence from contaminated environment and exposure of skin to these organisms.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of content
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problems
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Causes of blood infection
  • 2.2 Mode of invasion of bacteria
  • 2.3 Symptoms of bacteremia
  • 2.4 Diagnosis of bacteria blood infections
  • 2.5 Prevention
  • 2.6 Treatment

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Method

  • 3.1.0 Materials
  • 3.1.1 List of laboratory equipments
  • 3.1.2 Sterilization of materials
  • 3.1.3 Preparation of brain-heart infusion broth (BHIB)
  • 3.2 Cultural method
  • 3.3 Examination of colonies
  • 3.3.1 Gram staining and microscopic examination
  • 3.4 Biochemical test
  • 3.4.1 Indole test
  • 3.4.2 Citrate utilization test
  • 3.4.3 Catalase test
  • 3.4.4 Coagulase test
  • 3.4.5 Motility test
  • 3.5 Design of the study
  • 3.5.1 Population of the study
  • 3.5.2 Sample/sampling techniques
  • 3.5.3 Method of data collection
  • 3.5.4 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Result Representation and Analysis


Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion, Implications of the Study, Recommendation, Limitation and Suggestion for Further Study

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Implication of the study
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • 5.5 Limitations
  • 5.6 Suggestions for further research
  • References

List of Table


  • Table 1: Preparation of brain-heart infusion broth(BHIB)
  • Table 2: Biochemical Characteristics for Isolated Organisms
  • Table 3: Distribution of isolated organisms and their respective percentage occurrence
  • Table 4: Show the relative proportion of isolated organisms that were identified at each stage of age group.
  • Table 5: Distribution for isolated organisms according to Gender infected

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Blood infection is a condition where the blood stream of a human is been infected by pathogenic microorganisms that releases their toxins into the blood stream causing life-threatening and other serious complications. The presence of viable bacteria organisms in the blood is called bacteremia. This is a leading cause of death in most countries especially in rural areas and under developed countries like Nigeria and other African countries (Burton, 1992).

The effects of these organisms causes many complicated illness in people with compromised body immune system and also in people who have undergone surgical operations that may subject them to loss of blood. Bacteria blood infection (bacteremia) is a major cause of death in people living with HIV/Aids and also in anaemic patients (Memmler et al, 1992).

These viable bacteria organisms invade into the blood stream through the simple skin cut or wounds, surgical operation and through the body portal of entry like the anus, nose, mouth and genital tracts. It is noted that un-sterilized syringe and surgical equipments used on patients by health care providers are among the major source of pathogenic organisms the blood stream. These organisms causes urinary tract infection and stomach up-set when they accumulate into these body parts and later found their way into the blood stream through the blood capillaries that supplies blood to these part of the body (Ojukwu, 2002).

Bacteremia may cause no symptoms and resolve without treatment especially in people with strong body immunity.It can also produce fever and other symptoms of infection when they conquer the body immune system in people with suppressed body immune system. In some cases, this blood infection leads to septic shock, a potential life-threatening condition (Ako-Naiet al, 2000).

There are many types of blood infection but the most common type is called sepsis or setpticamia. When referring to the blood infections, the term sepsis and septicaemia are often interchangeable used but the two words are slightly different in their meanings. The term sepsis is a condition where the entire body is involve in a toxic condition of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins spread from one site of the body to another. While septicaemia is a condition where there are active pathogens present in the blood stream itself. When the pathogens involved in the blood stream are only bacteria, then the condition is known as bacteremia (Azubike and Nwanginieneme, 2002).

Talking of blood infection; sepsis is a serious medical condition caused by overwhelming immune response to infections. Chemicals released into the blood to fight infections triggers widespread of inflammation which may result in organ damage. Blood clotting during sepsis reduces blood flow in the limbs and internal organs, depriving them from nutrients and oxygen. In severe cases, one or more organ may fail or may lead fast drop in blood pressure called septic shock which can lead to failure to several organs such as brain, kidney, liver and lungs causing sudden death (Jawetz, 1989).


1.2 Statement of Problems

Many deaths have been traced to micro organisms associated with blood infections, had it been that the specific organisms involved is known, treatment and prevention would have been easier. The important of this study is therefore to isolate and identify the bacterial that causes blood infection.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of this research work is focused on the following

  1. To know the organisms responsible for bacteria blood infection.
  2. To determine the incidence of invasion of the organisms responsible for bacteria blood infection.
  3. To identify the stages at which symptoms of bacteremia manifest in the body.
  4. To determine the effect of bacteremia on gender.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the bacteria organisms that are associated with blood infections?
  2. What is the incidence of bacteria invasion of the blood stream?
  3. At what stage of infection do symptoms manifest in the body?
  4. What is the incidence of bacteremia on male and female gender?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of this research work is that it will help the populace to know the bacteria organisms that causes blood infection, their mode of invasion, symptoms method of isolating and identifying them as well as the preventive and treatment measure for each specific bacteria organism.


1.6 Scope of the Study

Due to the diversification and large number of pathogenic micro organisms that is associated with blood infections. This research work is intended to focus only on the bacteria organisms associated with blood infections, their causes, mode of invasion, their method of isolation and identification and their antibiotic sensitivity test for proper treatment.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion, Implications of the Study, Recommendation, Limitation and Suggestion for Further Study

5.1 Discussion

In a course of study to isolate and identify bacteria associated with blood infection (bacteremia), fifty samples were collected and analyzed. Out of these fifty samples, 30, were positive. This may be attributed to poor personal hygiene and use of un-sterilized syringe for injection, exposure to contaminated hospital equipment, having catheters in blood vessel for a long period and staying in the hospital for a long period. This agrees with report of Ako-Naiet al (1990) which categorized the incidence at high risk of 55%. A study under taken by Mokuolu et al, (2002) reported an incidence rate of 30.8%. Ojukwu et al., (2002) reported on incidence rate of 23.8% in south eastern Nigeria attributing the predisposing factors to prolonged/obstructed labour, home/traditional birth, contaminating birth equipment and untidy environment.

Table 3 shows that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen occurring for 20 time representing 39.2% of the total isolates. This may be attributed to the fact that S. aureus is a common cause of infection particularly nosocomia infection. Similarly results were reported by Mokuolu et al, (2002) 29.5%, Ojukwu et al, (2002) 45% Ako-Nai et al (1999) 33.8% Escherichia coli were the predominant gram negative organisms accounting for 10 (19.6%) of the isolates. This may be attributed to the fact that E. coli is most common Gram negative organism associated with infections.

Similar results were report by Ojukwu et al (2002), Mokulu et al (2002) also reported K. pneumonia to be most common Gram negative organism (16.4%).

The lower incidence of Streptococcus spp in this study 8 (15.7%) is in agreement with Haque et al (1990), Ojukwu et al (2002). Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounting for 2(3.9%) which may have been acquired through the respiratory tract in patients requiring mechanical Al-Zwani(2002).


5.2 Conclusion

From the analysis carried in this course of study, it was concluded that the bacteria associated with blood infection (bacteremia) are S. aureus, α-haemolytic Streptococcus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. Among these bacterial organisms the most predominantly occurrence are Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. While Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be the least. Therefore blood infection involved both Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli the most occurrence of Gram positive and Gram negative.


5.3 Implication of the Study

The implications for this study are:

  1. Un-sterilized syringe used for the collection of blood may be source of bacterial contamination to the blood.
  2. The researcher may contact one of the bacterial while carrying out the research work.

5.4 Recommendation

With the findings above, blood infections is real. And I hereby advice the hospital personnel to try to maintain personnel to try to maintain personal hygiene and used sterilized syringe to each patient and avoid the use of contaminated catheters to avoid entrance of bacteria into blood.


5.5 Limitations

This research work was limited to this stage due to finance, insufficient and high cost of materials and timeless.


5.6 Suggestions for Further Research

The researcher makes the following suggestion for further research as follows:

That further research should be carried out on the more bacterial that are capable of causing blood infection.

The researcher also suggests that more research work should be carried out on the media that will support more rapid growth of bacterial organisms capable of causing blood infections.

Another research work should also be carried on the foods that are capable of supporting bacteria growth in the body.


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