Isolation And Identification Of Air Microflora In Classroom
The hygiene of environmental surfaces from college premises like laboratory, classrooms, staffroom, canteen, washroom, corridor, railings and miscellaneous sites play role in spreading different pathogenic bacteria. This study helped to detect contamination of inanimate college environment to bacterial agents and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents. Twenty different samples from college premises were included in this study. Samples were taken from different sites of college premises that included almost twenty different places. Sampling procedures were based on CDC guidelines for environmental infection control. Furthermore, evaluation of bacterial contamination of personnel hands and some laboratory equipment’s too. All surface samples were preceded under standard guidelines of isolation and identification of bacteria. To show the presence of antibiotic-resistant of bacteria in college environments, antimicrobial susceptibility test was also performed to all the bacterial isolates. Isolation and identification of organism were performed by gram staining, culture, biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by Kirby – Bauer disc diffusion method and results were interpreted as per CLSI guidelines. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Micrococcus were isolated from college premises and they were identified on the basis of colony morphology, gram staining and various biochemical tests. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be most common bacterial pathogen isolated from college premises. So, environmental sanitation should be maintained and the laboratories should be decontaminated regularly to maintain the standard of labs.
1.1 Background To The Study
Most of the people live indoor: houses, schools, colleges, hospitals, and offices etc., where they are exposed to many environmental conditions that affect their health. Microorganisms are normally present in both indoor and outdoor environments. The quantity of microorganisms in a particular area depends upon the presence of water and other nutrient sources in that particular environment where they can develop extensively. Usually microorganisms enter into buildings through the doors, windows, air conditioners and also by people entering from outside. The type of species and amount of organisms present depends on the viscosity, temperature, lighting and food available in that particular environment. Among the microorganisms present in the indoor environment, some species of microorganisms if present beyond the limit can cause serious health problems. So the isolation, identification and measurement of different types of microorganisms especially in indoor environment has become a very hot topic at present and it has attracted everyone’s attention in this field. Among the indoor microorganisms; some may be pathogenic and could secrete toxic metabolites which can cause allergy and even serious diseases. Since a number of students are studying in our college attending both theory and practical sessions, they are exposed to a number of pathogenic bacteria which can affect their health if proper care is not taken. Environmental pathogens are defined as microorganisms that normally spend a substantial part of their lifecycle outside human hosts, but when introduced to humans cause disease with measurable frequency. They are borne in the water, soil, air, food, and other elements of our surroundings, and they affect almost every individual on the planet. Their adverse effects on human health and productivity cannot be controlled without first obtaining a thorough understanding of their environmental niches, their incidence, and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. To achieve this understanding, surveillance of the environment to determine the numbers and distribution of environmental pathogens is needed. The key difference between environmental pathogens and other human pathogens is their ability to survive and thrive outside the host. Their widespread occurrence in the environment makes them difficult to monitor and control so, proper care and sanitation should be maintained in college premises.
The environment significantly influences multiple factors in the chain of infection. Although microbiologically contaminated surfaces can serve as reservoirs for pathogens, these surfaces generally are not directly associated with transmission of infections. The transmission of microorganisms from environmental surfaces to students is largely via hand contact with the surface. Although hand hygiene is important to minimize the impact of this transfer, cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces appropriately is fundamental in reducing their potential contribution to the incidence of healthcare-associated infections.
Microorganisms are found almost everywhere, and their presence in the air was demonstrated by the work of Lazzaro Splallanzani in 1768 and of Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th century (Meraj-ul-Haque et al., 2016). However, air is not a natural medium for growth and reproduction of microorganisms, any organism, that airborne contain must have originated from a living or non living source (humans, animals, plants, food, water or soil) (Yaghoub and Elagbash, 2010). Though microorganisms are found in both indoor and outdoor environments, most of the people spend their lives indoors: in houses, industries, offices, colleges, schools, hospitals etc., where they are exposed to many bioaerosols (biological air borne contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or their byproducts). Exposure to these airborne particles can result in respiratory disorders and other adverse health effects such as infections, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic reactions (Naruka and Gaur 2014; Sheik et al., 2015; Yassin and Almouqat, 2010). In addition, long-term contact of people with bioaerosols can influence a person’s mental power and learning ability (Naruka and Gaur, 2014). Different environmental conditions such as temperature, UV light, dryness and humidity, play a role in controlling the growth of airborne particles. Nevertheless the microbes manage to reach new hosts through the air for its survival (Sheik et al., 2015). Poor ventilation, crowded conditions and increase in number of air conditions inside building nowadays can facilitate the spreading and the survival rates of airborne particles and also can increase the chance of people at risk of airborne infections. Among dust particles present in the indoor environment, fungus which reproduce by forming spores, some bacteria especially gram positive bacteria and some viruses can survive for a long time in the air (Sheik et al., 2015; Jacob, 2016).
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Despite the need to monitor bio-aerosol levels in evaluating health risks, differences between automatic techniques and passive sedimentation techniques hamper results comparison. Automated techniques, although they are efficient in quantitative analysis, are of limited use because they require heavy and noisy equipment and need a constant power supply. The passive sedimentation technique is also limited because it does not permit an adequate quantitative analysis, but it is still widely recommended in the literature for use as a microbiological alert (Abe et al., 2012). It is well known that exposure to bioaerosols can cause adverse effect on people and for this reason it is important to check the sanitary conditions of air in the place they live. This research work aims to isolate and identify air microflora in classroom settings.
In this study we adopt the method of settle plate and swabs since settle plates are sterile, economical and readily available. The results obtained by settle plates are reproducible and reliable. Many places in the environment can be checked at the same time. Data collected on settle plates set in different places, by different operators, can be compared and understood. The natural trend of microbial population in the air is not disturbed during the sampling time.
1.3 Research Objectives
The main aim of the study is to isolate and identify air microflora in classroom.
- To isolate the pathogenic bacteria.
- To identify the pathogenic bacteria by biochemical tests.
- To perform antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) of the isolates
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
Microbial monitoring of our college premises was carried out in order to prevent from health hazards. Since, the organisms can cause serious disease, proper care should be taken by avoiding overcrowding. Good ventilation facilities should be provided in college laboratories, toilets along with other places of college should be cleaned and disinfected daily. On plate exposure at different sites of colleges and swabs taken Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus were found most commonly. Bacillus normal air microflora and they do not cause serious health problem commonly whereas Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterium that can cause serious health problem to the student in the college premises. This project will be helpful to keep the college environment free of pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, regular monitoring of air quality evaluation should be done in order to make environment free of microorganisms.
- In this study, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be most common bacterial pathogen isolated from college premises. So, environmental sanitation should be maintained and the laboratories should be decontaminated regularly to maintain the standard of labs.
- This study revealed, Amoxycillin and Ciprofloxacin as a most effective drugs among all the isolated organisms. So, these drugs can be recommended for the treatment.
- The college environment should be routinely cleaned and especially the laboratories should be regularly decontaminated.
Isolation And Identification Of Air Microflora In Classroom
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Isolation And Identification Of Air Microflora In Classroom
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