Involvement Of Various Education Stakeholders In Policy Making In Secondary Education

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Involvement Of Various Education Stakeholders In Policy Making In Secondary Education


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education. The study was specifically set to determine whether educational stakeholders has a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria, ascertain the educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation, find out the extent to which stakeholders engagement has impacted secondary education policy formulation in Nigeria, and find whether the involvement of relevant stakeholders promotes the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of ministry of education, Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi- square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that educational stakeholders have a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study also revealed that he involvement of relevant stakeholders promote the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that parents and educators should realize that among the education stakeholders they are the most important and that their coming together is indeed a move in the right direction aimed at benefiting the students as well of course as the schools. It is paramount therefore, that they should join hand cooperatively in order to achieve the goal of their coming together. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Traditionally, the role of secondary education has proven to be a necessary avenue through which the citizenry acquire knowledge to advance development within every country. Arguably, both developing and developed country perspectives points to the direction that a powerful case can be made for the expansion of secondary education on the grounds of growth, poverty reduction, equity, and social cohesion. In developing countries like Ghana, the provision of secondary education tends to serve as a useful platform both for individuals and for society as a whole.
Boyer (1983) posits that there is a positive relationship between secondary education and growth of a country. This is predicated on the fact that secondary education tends to cause increases in the individual productivity therefore resulting in an enhanced personal earning for citizens. At the national level, secondary education plays an important role in fostering economic growth through the creation, acquisition, distribution, and use of knowledge.

Blakemore & Cooksey (2017) contend that developed countries perspective suggest that the education and training that children receive during their teenage years has long been recognized as crucial to the development of job skills and other attributes that affect the ability to function productively as members of society. In developing countries like Ghana, economic pressures typically force children into the workforce at a much earlier age. Consequently, fewer individuals are well educated at the teenage years to make significant contributions to the economic and social development of the country. Considering the significance of education towards development, Ghana after attaining independence has instituted numerous policy reforms to engender socio-economic development.
Over the past decades there have been a number of educational policies and programmes to improve education access and participation in Nigeria such as the educational reforms, capitation Grant, School Feeding Programme, access to functional literacy programmes, education and training for employability for the educational development and sustainability, and national development, free secondary education (FSHS) etc. are all policy perspectives for enhancing education within Nigeria.

In order to attain the full aspirations of these policy interventions within the educational sector, it is imperative for the targets to be monitored and assessed through a collaborated manner. The argument is that the role of stakeholders cannot be disregarded as they play a vital role in ensuring accountability in education (Mandina & Chiheve, 2013). For instance, stakeholders have significant impact in education financing (Oseni, 2012), play significant roles in ensuring quality education through promoting effectiveness and efficiency of procedures for quality improvement (Brussels, 2011), improving quality of decision making (Mualuko et al. 2009), improving the quality of educational system (Kamba, 2010) and above all have impact in the design and execution of government education policies (Chinelo, 2011; Odufowokan, 2011).

In light of seemingly intractable and complex nature of the educational challenges, public administrators have shifted toward governance activities that allow citizens and stakeholders to have deeper involvement in the policy making process and the work of government (Bingham, Nabatchi & O’Leary, 2005).

In Nigerian context, the 2013 revised edition of the national education policy stated that in order to ensure rapid implementation of education policies for quality education, relevant stakeholders should be involved. This is due to the fact that stakeholders in education sector are individuals who are concerned with education (Adebayo, 2013), and as such they play many roles of ensuring that the school system accomplish its specified goals and objectives that are directed at ensuring quality education. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The relevance of education to the existence and survival of nations cannot be over stressed as no nation can progress without its citizens being educated. However, to reap the benefits of education, stakeholders should be engaged in all education related matters, policy decisions inclusive. Education stakeholders comprise of all those interested in the welfare, success and progress of a school and its students including educators, parents, community members, elected officials, state representatives and non-governmental organizations etc. Engaging the stakeholders is indeed a great mechanism for the realization of the objectives of education as well achieving its quality, despite this there are some constraints to their engagement in the Nigerian context. In the first instance, even though the National Policy of Education provides and guarantees stakeholder’s participation with a view to eliminating overlaps, and sustain synergy, the government did almost everything itself without fully incorporating those with a stake. Added to this is the issue of unnecessary politicization of the education policies by governments through frequent revising of the policies as well as communication gap pertaining education issues between government, stakeholders and the masses. In situations where they are involved, for example the educators and parents through what in Nigeria is called Parent Teacher Association, the constraints encountered include delay in decision making, increase expenses and lack of consensus.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine whether educational stakeholders has a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain the educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation.
  3. Find out the extent to which stakeholders engagement has impacted secondary education policy formulation in Nigeria.
  4. Find whether the involvement of relevant stakeholders promotes the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;

  1. Does educational stakeholders have a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria?
  2. What are the educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation?
  3. What is the extent to which stakeholders engagement has impacted secondary education policy formulation in Nigeria?
  4. Does the involvement of relevant stakeholders promote the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The involvement of relevant stakeholders do not promote the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.
  • Ha: The involvement of relevant stakeholders promotes the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is relevant to the field of Public Administration in two ways: thus both in theory and in practice. In terms of theory, the study contributes to the already existing literature on policy implementation in developing countries. Specifically, the study fills a gap in secondary educational policy formulation as most of the related studies look at implementation of educational policy as a whole. In terms of practice, the study illuminates the need for policy makers, professionals, technocrats and other actors within the educational fraternity to adopt broader consultation and stakeholder engagement throughout the policy implementation process. The research, therefore, has a deep foundation in the field of Public Administration and the results would be relevant to public administrators, policy makers, the general public and other people in authority on best practices for policy implementation.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education. The study will also assess the educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation. Geographically, this study will be delimited to ministry of education, Anambra State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Education

Education as the transmission of what is worthwhile to those who are committed to it, be they adult or young.

Stakeholder

A stakeholder is defined as any group or individual who can affect the performance of an organization or be affected by achievement of the organization’s objectives.

Education Stakeholders

Education stakeholders are group of people who have vested interest in the education sector.

Educational Policies

Educational policies are initiatives mostly by governments that determine the direction of an educational system.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education using ministry of education, Anambra State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the involvement of various education stakeholders in policy making in secondary education. The study was specifically set to determine whether educational stakeholders has a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria, ascertain the educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation, find out the extent to which stakeholders engagement has impacted secondary education policy formulation in Nigeria, and find whether the involvement of relevant stakeholders promotes the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of ministry of education, Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Educational stakeholders have a significant role to play in the phase of policy making in secondary education in Nigeria.
  2. The educational stakeholders required to be involved for effective secondary education policy formulation includes: educators, parents, community members, elected officials, state representatives and non-governmental organizations.
  3. The extent to which stakeholders engagement has impacted secondary education policy formulation in Nigeria is high.
  4. The involvement of relevant stakeholders promote the formulation of effective secondary education policy in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. Stakeholders in education should be allowed to come together and join hands with the government to determine or decide on the form of education that is fit for the country. There is the need to have a plan of the form of education that would make the country develop in all aspects. This can be done by identifying the areas of educational challenges and on the aspects that need to be focus on. These areas are in most cases understood much better by the stakeholders and as such their involvement can play a great role towards making the right decision in the right direction. Moreover, going by the contents, structure and composition of the National Education Policy, it is evident that Nigeria has a sound and quality education policy that if properly put into effect can take the country to the promise land. Therefore, all hands must join together in order to have a cooperative education for the benefit of all.
  2. Effective stakeholder engagement in policy decision making enables a better planned and more informed policies, projects, programs and services which could be of mutual benefit not only to the stakeholders but to the education providers or the government and the society as a whole. For stakeholders, the benefits to be reaped out of taking part in educational activities include among others the opportunity to make their contribution as experts in their field to policy and program development, have their issues heard and get engaged in decisionmaking. For the government or the ministry of education, the benefits of stakeholder’s engagement include improved flow of information by tapping into local knowledge and having the opportunity to ‘road-test’ policy initiatives or proposals with stakeholders. The more the stakeholders are engaged in participatory decision making, the more likelihood of reaping these benefits.
  3. In order to make a steady progress towards the realization of the objectives of education policies as well as achieve synergy and overcome overlaps, educational issues should not be politicized unnecessarily. There is the need to involve all those with a stake whenever the need arises even in cases of policy revision. Education policy formulation and consideration should be for the good of all and these call for a holistic overhaul, reorientation and rebranding of education. Government should make sure that all the recommendations as well as suggestions offered by in reports, pronouncements and positions canvassed by educational accreditation, visitations and probe panels are implemented.
  4. There is the need to have adequate enlightment of the masses by the government through the mass media especially the electronic media so that educational matters can reach everyone even those at the grassroots for them to understand what is really happening. This will go a long way in making the public aware of government educational programs and how best they can contribute towards its success.
  5. Parents and educators should realize that among the education stakeholders they are the most important and that their coming together is indeed a move in the right direction aimed at benefiting the students as well of course as the schools. It is paramount therefore, that they should join hand cooperatively in order to achieve the goal of their coming together. All differences should be set aside. It is often said that two heads are better than one. They should therefore make optimum use of the opportunity in order to boost the education of their children so as to move the country forward.

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