An Investigative Study On The Use Of Field Trip In Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary School

Biology Education Project Material

An Investigative Study On The Use Of Field Trip In Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary School


Abstract


The study investigated the influence of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in Enugu East LGA of Enugu state, Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. Survey design was used for the study. The sample size was one hundred (100) senior secondary school II (SS2) students. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire made up of 15 items. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the instruments using crombach alpha. The findings revealed that teachers use field trip once a year and that some teachers do not use it all in teaching and learning of biology. The findings also revealed among others that field trip is an effective method of teaching since it helps students acquire useful knowledge while having fun and relaxation at the same time. The researcher recommended that extensive field trip should be organized by schools so as to expose the students to events outside the classroom.


Chapter One


Introduction

Concepts of Field Trip strategy was introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer for a Quaker school at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London, United Kingdom.

A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, which cannot be achieved as well by using other means. For example if the lesson is on “making cheese”, and if there is no hand on experience it is very difficult to achieve the objectives. In such a lesson this strategy is required. Field trips give opportunity for students to get out of the classroom and experience something new. The located place for field trip can be zoos, collages, museums, theater and schools.

Features of field trip facilitate the learning of abstract concepts. Taking students on a field trip makes learning more effective as they will be able to gain vast ideas on the topic. Motivate students through increased interest and curiosity. Field trips can add variety to the regular classroom instructional program and they tend to be special and enjoyable learning experiences. As a result, students will develop positive attitudes in students toward related classroom activities.

Increases student-student and student-teacher social interaction. Field trips provide an opportunity to involve students, parents, and the teachers in the instructional program. Students can select the place to be visited, developing questions to ask, writing reports or thank you letters after the trip, or evaluating the experiences. Since parents must give their permission, a letter sent home with the permission from explaining purpose of the trip is a good way to arouse their curiosity and encourage them to ask the student or teacher about the trip. The parent guides their child in order to make sure that they do not come to any harm. This role allows the parent and teacher to establish a much closer relationship.

The interaction between students within themselves will also be increased when they work in groups. Moreover, the interaction between the students and teacher will enhance as the students will have to discuss to the teachers when they have doubts. Develops social awareness. Field trips make students aware of learning activities in everyday life. For instance, visits to supermarkets or shopping malls are typical field experiences, which teachers may fail to notice. A well-organized trip to a “normal” place is an excellent method of teaching students to observe, ask questions, and learn in the large classroom.


1.1 Background of the Study

Purpose of Field Trip enhances the curriculum. Field trips are rich in educational possibilities as students learn from actual hands-on experiences, rather than by simply reading or hearing about something. Involvement in a real world experience makes learning more meaningful and memorable comparing to regular classroom instructional programs. Give students experiential learning experiences. Involvement in a real world experience makes learning more meaningful and memorable. As a result the students will have more concept of the topic as they have learnt through their hand-on experiences.

Concrete skills such as note taking. Students have to develop questions to be asked, write reports or thank you letters after the trip, or evaluate their experiences. By doing such activities, students will develop various skills such as note taking skills, speaking skills, writing skills will enhance. Involvement in a real world experience makes learning more meaningful and memorable. Field trips can add variety to the regular instructional program; they tend to be special and enjoyable learning experiences, ones which develop positive attitudes in students toward related classroom activities. Field trips are rich in educational possibilities because students learn from actual firsthand experiences, rather than by simply reading or hearing about something.

Field trips help the students appreciate the relevance and importance of what they learn in the classroom. For e.g. determining blood type is a skill, which can be learned in a school laboratory setting, but students may not learn the importance of this skill until they observe what goes on in a real hospital where life and death are. The research intends to investigate the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem confronting the research is to determine the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school. This is particularly imperative to ensure the effectiveness of field trips and the attainment of its objectives.


1.3 Research Question

  1. What is the nature of field trips in teaching and learning
  2. What is the significance of field trips in teaching and learning
  3. What constitute the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school

1.4 Objective of the Research

  1. To determine the nature of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school.
  2. To appraise the significance of field trip
  3. To determine the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school

1.5 Significance of the Research

The research shall elucidate the nature of field trips in teaching and learning in biology in secondary school. And analyze the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.

It shall also serve as a veritable source of information on issues of field trip in teaching and learning.


1.6 Statement of the Hypothesis

Ho: Teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is low
Hi: Teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is high

Ho: The use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is low
Hi: The use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is high

Hi: The factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school are high


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study shall appraise the nature of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school and elucidate the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Field Trip Defined

Concepts of Field Trip strategy was introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer for a Quaker school at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London, United Kingdom.

A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, which cannot be achieved as well by using other means. For example if the lesson is on “making cheese”, and if there is no hand on experience it is very difficult to achieve the objectives. In such a lesson this strategy is required. Field trips give opportunity for a students to get out of the classroom and experience something new. The located place for field trip can be zoos, collages, museums, theater and schools.

Learning Defined

The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Knowledge or skill gained through schooling or study. Behavioral modification especially through experience or conditioning.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of field trip on teaching and learning of biology in secondary school students in Zaria educational zone. The study reviews the literature relevant to the study under the following sub-headings: Nature of biology as Science subject at senior secondary level, teaching biology concept at senior secondary level, student’s academic achievement in biology, science teaching methods/strategies., field Trip for teaching science, learning ability in science, school location and academic achievement in science, overview of similar studies and Implication of the literature reviewed on the present study.

The design of the study was quasi experimental control involving the pre-test posttests. The sample of the study consisted of 200 SS 1 biology students in both rural and urban areas. Three research questions were raised and collapsed to three hypotheses. The research questions were tested with descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested with inferential statistics i.e independent sample test(t-test).
From the results of the analyses discussed in 4.2, the field trip teaching strategy favored the experimental group in biology concept. This provided a positive response to the question does field trip strategy have any effect on students’ performance in biology concept?

The study shows that, there is significant differences between the achievements of students taught using field trip teaching strategy and those taught by traditional method. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy is a good tool in teaching biology concept at secondary school level.

Field trip teaching strategy also favoured the urban experimental group in biology concept; this provided a positive response to the question, what is the effect of field trip on urban and rural students’ performance in biology concept in Zaria educational zone? The study shows that, there are significances between the achievement of students in urban experimental group using field trip teaching strategy and those students in rural experimental group using the same strategy. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy has made more impact on urban students.

Field trip teaching strategy favoured the experimental group in biology concept on learning ability. This provided a positive response to the question, what is the effect of field trip on student’s learning ability in biology concept among senior secondary school in Zaria educational zone. The study shows that, there is significant difference between the achievement of students taught using field trip teaching strategy and those taught by traditional method. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy is a good tool in teaching biology concept at senior secondary school level.


5.2 Conclusion

This unit gave inferences drawn from the finding thus:

Generally, it was confirmed that there was high significant difference between the mean achievement of the experimental and control groups in biology concept. And there was also high significant difference between the mean achievement of the experimental and control groups in biology concept on learning ability. This further confirmed that the field trip teaching strategy has gained more than the traditional method of teaching.

However, it was statistically, shown that field trip teaching strategy favoured students in urban experimental group in teaching biology concept. This might be that, the students in urban are more curious i.e want to know when taken to the natural surroundings, urban student used English as a means of communication so they have advantage in NECO/WAEC examination and also availability of electric light in the urban help in the used of internet.

Field trip teaching strategy favored the experimental groups was due to the fact that the pre-requisite steps of activities in teaching of biology concept were followed. This has stimulated students’ attention and interest, which led to good performance in biology concept. The students on experimental group were taught with the strategy (field trip) that required the used of basic science process skills i.e observation, identification, classification and manipulation of substances in the natural surroundings. The students in this group became more active and creative since they can see and manipulate organism in their natural surroundings.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study; the following recommendations are made; thus:

  1. Although field trip is integrated into the teaching programme, it is not being used. Therefore, the government should make the use of field trip teaching strategy compulsory particularly in the teaching and learning of the biology concept at SS level. This will enhance students gain first hand information, and provide opportunity for them to see, possibly touch and feel what they have heard about certain organism and situations.
  2. Field trip experiences when used should be relevant to contents in the curriculum, if they are to make the necessary impact.
  3. Field trip experiences should emphasizes real practical experiences with the students collecting, analyzing data, interpreting data and using them to explain previous knowledge.
  4. Field trip when used should be such that can serve as an integrated learning i.e field trip cannot teach one idea, but many. A field trip to a vegetable farm, for example can bring disparate topics together such as photosynthesis, the scientific method, how to collect data, plant, insect, part of flowers, soil erosion etc.
  5. For the exercise (field trip) to be successful, it has to be well-funded, by both school authorities and parents. As such the school authorities and parents should put hands together to make field trip teaching strategy at all level of learning in successful one by proper funding at any design time.

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