An Investigation Of Teachers Perception On The Contribution Of Community Resources In The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies

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An Investigation Of Teachers Perception On The Contribution Of Community Resources In The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Social studies were introduced into the Nigerian educational system based on philosophical principles. One of them is to examine social issues and man’s problems of existence in its inter- connectedness, as they arise in real-world circumstances, rather than treating them in separate disciplines such as Geography, Religion, Sociology, and Anthropology. According to Ezegbe (2011), social studies was developed as an integrated subject to make education more relevant. Because social studies is an integrated program that is taught and learned, it was also introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophers of Nigerian education, as stated in the National Policy on Education (2009), which is the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen. Social studies examines all area of a child’s existence in society. The essence of education, according to the National Policy on Education (2004), is to accomplish the inculcation of national awareness and unity. The individual’s indoctrination into Nigerian society. According to Ezegbe (2013), all of this entails the formation of contemporary democratic principles, which are taught and learned in sociological studies due to its vast reach.

The achievement of the goal for which social studies was established in schools would rely heavily on the availability of not just the correct quality of professionally qualified social studies teaching professionals, but also the material resources accessible in schools for its instruction. When Bram in (2007) states that the curriculum may be a huge success or a dreadful failure depending on the instructors, he is emphasizing the importance of the teacher in the curriculum process. They are the important individuals who, by themselves, ensure that the curriculum design achieves its goals. Regardless of how passionately a country is determined to offer education for its population, regardless of its financial resources or good will. The system’s efficacy is ultimately determined by the quality of the teachers who run it. The teacher is the one who translates society value and desire into classroom instruction.

According to Fafunwa (2008) and Fayemi (2009), who have written on the importance of teachers as curriculum implementer. According to them, no matter what talents are accessible, what topic is supplied for teaching, what type of environment the school is in, or what sort of students are assigned to teach, the teacher’s crucial and critical function cannot be overstated. Teachers make up a bigger part of an educational system’s contribution.

Educational inputs, such as instructional materials, are critical to the proper implementation of any program. In the teaching and learning process, relevant and suitable textbooks, visual and audio visual resources such as globes, charts, slides, maps, cassettes, and so on are essential. What is read in textbooks and journals is supplemented and reinforced by audiovisual content. An significant but often disregarded source of instructional material for efficient teaching and learning of social educational inputs and they are of crucial relevance in the successful implementation of any curriculum. Textbooks, graphics, and audio-visual materials that are relevant and acceptable. Social studies as wide discipline deals with study of the actions of man in his physical and social environment (i.e how man impact the environment in which he lives and in turn also investigates the environment effect on man) accordingly. Teachers of social studies use the community as a test bed. A close review of the social studies curriculum in Nigerian primary and junior secondary schools reveals that they are prevalent in our communities. These concerns might be historical, geographical, economic, social, or cultural in nature. There is no better site than the local community for successful social studies teaching and learning, especially given the subject’s character and breadth. The person may see the social process and interactions firsthand. At the local level, social studies is about family, school, community functioning, job, and government, and at the national level, it is about explaining these things ( Meziobi,2012).

Family members of pupils may often be employed as resources. When the class is studying community workers or the labor market, a parent may be able to discuss his or her employment. There may be items from many countries in the houses of the kids that the class would find interesting. Many instructors have discovered that they brighten up the classroom. When students become members of the community, they must be prepared to think constructively, to make judgments and decisions, to evaluate and critique what they have learnt, and to identify themselves with these things (Meziobi, 2012).

Acceptance of the above assumption prompts the question of whether secondary school social studies students are supposed to sit in the classroom and listen to the instructor define a lake or hill, or to walk outside and examine these qualities and how man’s actions affect and reshape them. One strategy to meet the goals of social studies is to make effective use of community resources in the teaching and learning of the subject.

According to Meziobi (2012), social studies teachers should shift their focus away from textbooks and other reading materials and toward participatory approaches in social studies instruction that are inductive and problem-solving oriented and encourage creative and reflective inquiry, which cannot be inculcated solely through the reading of social studies textbooks and other reading materials to be employed integrally. The proper use or commitment of educational materials and resources is required for an effective interactive process.

Resources, according to Fadeye (2009), might be a stimulus, an item, a person, or anything else that aids the learner in their quest for knowledge in social studies. Beyond family, the community is the neighborhood; community resources are natural or rural communities’ supplies. A reference person is an expert or knowledgeable person in a particular field who is invited to or is invited for explanations and dissemination of information. Community leaders, farmers, hunters, priests, librarians and postmen, police officers, doctors, legislators, and others are examples of reference people. Given the social importance of social studies and the Nigerian society’s low degree of technological development, nonhuman resources are best suited for efficient social studies education. Because of the increased focus on community-based education and the diminishing economic conditions that have resulted in an insufficient supply of instructional materials and infrastructure in our schools, community resources have become a cure for the lack of instructional materials.

According to Meziobi(2007), they assist in exposing students to the reality of their area or community and providing direct experiences that help to concretize the social studies information that has been sparse. It gives variation to learning during visits to familiarize learners with their social and physical surroundings as well as enhance the school community interaction, breaking the monotony of the instructor.

Furthermore, students may volunteer in the community on projects ranging from assisting older people to cleaning up local parks. Community services serve as a link between students and the community and can be valuable resources in the pursuit of citizenship. The kids are taught to recognize the importance of the community in their lives and education.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Because the kid is a product of the community, using community resources in social studies teaching and learning becomes a method of improving socio-ecological balance and learners’ awareness of their surroundings. The reliance on high-tech materials such as radio and television for social studies instructional materials efficacy in Nigeria at this stage of development is not only impractical, but it will also obstruct the appropriate institutionalization of social studies education (Meziobi,2012).

The unavailability and, at times, non-availability of imported high-tech items such as cine projectors, slide projectors, and authorized projectors for efficient classroom instruction hampered successful teaching (Meziobi,2012). Furthermore, most social studies instructors are unable to successfully run the educational resources, which causes issues. Unfortunately, while some of the materials are accessible, schools do not have enough energy to power them. These issues have revealed themselves in the way that students struggle to connect abstract notions presented. Hence the need to look into teachers perception on the contribution of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is teachers perception on the contribution of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies.

The specific objective is as follows:

  1. To examine if social studies teachers are aware of community resources available for teaching the subject.
  2. To find out the benefit of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies.
  3. To evaluate if professional and non professional teachers differ in their perception of using community resources to teach social studies.
  4. To determine the constraints to the use of community resources in teaching and learning social studies.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Are social studies teachers are aware of community resources available for teaching the subject?
  2. What are the benefit of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies?
  3. Does professional and non professional teachers differ in their perception of using community resources to teach social studies?
  4. What is the constraints to the use of community resources in teaching and learning social studies.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study is of significant to the following group of people which include.

It is of significant to all social studies.

Teacher to cultivate the habit of using community resources in teaching social studies. It is a significant to all school management to encourage the use of community resources in the planning of school curriculum.

The research work will also be of great significant to further researchers and educationalist who would like to embark on research topic like this.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will examine if social studies teachers are aware of community resources available for teaching the subject. The study will also find out the benefit of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies. The study will further evaluate if professional and non professional teachers differ in their perception of using community resources to teach social studies. Lastly, the study will determine the constraints to the use of community resources in teaching and learning social studies. Hence this study will be delimited to Irele local government area of Ondo state.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Community:

People who live in a particular area, country e.t.c

Resources:

A stock or supply of money materials, staff and other assets that an be drawn by a person or organization in order to function effectively.

Teacher:

A person whose job is teaching especially in a school.


An Investigation Of Teachers Perception On The Contribution Of Community Resources In The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies


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An Investigation Of Teachers Perception On The Contribution Of Community Resources In The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies


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