Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sand And Gravel Materials Commonly Used In Building Construction

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sand And Gravel Materials Commonly Used In Building Construction


This report comprises the use of aggregate both fine and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete, these coarse aggregate are strong in compressive strength of concrete. The coarse and fine aggregate that posses both physical and mechanical properties in the production of concrete which in a correct proportion to give desire strength of the concrete. The mixing ratio that was used is 1:2:4 which known as pure mixing and the other ratio is ratio 1:3:6. 1:2:4 gives 1 head pan of cement with 2 head pan of sharp sand or fine aggregate while 4 head pan for coarse aggregate. After the production of the casted cube, curing was carried out. The duration of the curing is 7 days, 14 days, 28 days. After the curing days, compressive strength test was performed to determine the suitability of the sand and gravel materials in the strength of concrete generally used in the building construction.

Table of Content

  • Title page
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of the problem
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives
  • 1.2.1 Objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Justification of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of study
  • 1.5 Methodology

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Cement
  • 2.1.1 Properties of cement
  • 2.2 Water
  • 2.3 Sand
  • 2.4 Granite
  • 2.5 Grading of aggregate
  • 2.6 mix proportion method

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Mold acquisition
  • 3.2 Quantity of materials needed for a concrete cube
  • 3.2.1 Procedure uses
  • 3.3 Mix design
  • 3.3.1 Sorting and mixing procedure
  • 3.4 Sieve size analysis
  • 3.4.1 Sieve analysis test
  • 3.4.2 Preparation for sieve analysis test
  • Procedure for sieve analysis test
  • 3.5 Concrete slump test
  • 3.5.1 Principle of slump test
  • 3.5.2 Apparatus
  • 3.5.3 Procedure for slump test
  • 3.5.4 Limitation of the slump test
  • 3.5.5 Differences in standard
  • 3.6 Compressive strength test

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Sand and Gravel (Aggregate) are generally used in construction of building and other structures such as Lintel, Slab, Beam and Column. When concrete is freshly mixed the aggregates are suspended in cement, water, air bubble paste. Selection of types and size gradation of the aggregate depend upon the nature of the aggregate employed, a fairly precise balanced between the amount of fine and coarse aggregate size fraction may have to be maintained to achieve the desire mobility, plasticity and freedom from segregation (Olajide B.T 2013). Presence of aggregate provides an enormous contact area for intimate bond between the paste and the aggregate surfaces. Rigidity of aggregate greatly restrains volume change of the whole mass. Aggregate (sand and gravel) can be classified by their mineral, chemical, and physical properties, aggregate physical properties and direct result of its mineral and chemical properties, significantly improve the workability of the fresh concrete are contributed by proper choice of aggregate, this improvement is important in the properties of hardened concrete as well, such as properties and pavement slipperiness.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

This research work is comprises the finding of the fine and coarse aggregate from different area in Ilorin metropolis and uses of different aggregate size for the production of concrete and the compressive strength test is carryout to determine the compressive strength of concrete produced with different sizes of coarse aggregate.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material use in the construction of buildings.

1.2.1 Objectives of the Study:
  1. To determine how gravel can be use for commercial purpose.
  2. To determine the strength capacity of the two materials i.e. sand and gravel for the purpose of construction.
  3. To be able to recommend a particular practicable design ratio for aggregate in the construction of a building.

1.3 Justification of the Study

The sand and gravel has been the principal construction material worldwide. Sand and gravel represent loose sediments originated by transport and deposition of more or less worn rock fragmented of certain size (Gravel 2 to 129mm, sand 0.065 to 2mm) which is the product of the weathering of rocks.

The ultimate use of sand and gravel determines the ratio of combination of sand and gravel size, the shape, rock type and composition. Sand and gravel are used mostly in the building industry in concrete mixtures, as drainage and filtration layers, road base fill and for foundation stabilization, e.g. sand are used in the building industry in mortar and concrete mixtures as an opening material in production of bricks.

1.4 Scope of Study

This research work is based on the experiment conducted in the laboratory of sand and gravel of Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin to determine the grade of particular size, likewise the strength.

The scope is as follows:

  1. To perform sieve analysis test on fine and coarse aggregate.
  2. The production of concrete cube
  3. The compressive strength test.

1.5 Methodology

The method used in this project is the selection of different size of aggregate and the uses of those aggregate in the production of concrete according to British standard (B.S. 8110). The production of concrete cube is carried out and curing also takes place after the production in order to achieve maximum strength. There is production for 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days and compressive strength machine is use for the crushing which gives the actual strength for each production per day. The essence of this laboratory test is to determine the suitability of sand and gravel of different size particles in concrete production use in building construction works.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the sieve analysis graph it was reveal that particles size was uniformly graded which determine the strength yield from the cubes produced with the particles of different sizes distribution determine the compressive strength togetherness with the age of curing.

The particle obtained from zone D yielded high compressive strength of 25.55N/MM2 as a result of low presence of impurities which could cause concrete cancer. While the low compressive strength lies at zone A due to the presence of high impurities it value is 10.48N/MM2. It was also noted that the increase in the age of curing increases the compressive strength i.e. the 28 days of curing has the highest compressive strength compare to other ages of curing.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the observation, the following recommendations are suggested:

The proportion of the different size of particles making up the aggregate should be carried out by sieve analysis.
The grading usually given in terms of the percentages by weight passing of the various sieve. A suitable gradation of the combined aggregate in a concrete cube mix is desirable in order to secure workability and economy in the use of cement, therefore, for mixes of consistency and cement content, a well graded mix should ensure to produce a stronger concrete cubes than a harsh. Further investigations are required on the production of mix design for various aggregate used in concrete cube production.

Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sand And Gravel Materials Commonly Used In Building Construction

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Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sand And Gravel Materials Commonly Used In Building Construction


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