An Investigation On The Significance Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Achievement Of Secondary Schools Students
1.1 Background to the Study
In the delivery of instructions, instructional materials act as a conduit between the instructor and the pupils. They may also be used to motivate students throughout the teaching-learning process. It is used to keep kids’ attention and avoid boredom. Teaching resources are very crucial, particularly for rookie instructors. In every element of teaching, teachers depend on instructional resources. They need content to provide context for the topic they are teaching. When young instructors first join the job, they typically do not have a lot of experience. Lesson plans are often based on instructional resources. Teachers will also need these tools in order to test their pupils’ understanding. Teachers often evaluate pupils by assigning assignments, developing projects, and delivering tests. For all of these activities, instructional materials are required.
Teachers’ strategic component in organizing and delivering education, according to Oni (1992), is instructional resources. This is because they assist in the development of a notion that the instructor would not be able to develop without the use of instructional materials. This enables two pupils to study more comfortably, resulting in improved academic achievement. Balogun (1982), writing on the significance of instructional materials in teaching and learning, said that scientific education programs cannot be taught successfully without the availability of teaching equipment. This is because instructional materials aid in the development of problem-solving abilities and scientific attitudes in individuals who are learning. Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) elaborate on the same idea, stating that when instructional resources are offered to satisfy the relative demands of the teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials specified by the instructor, as well as the ability to study at their own speed. As a result, students will perform significantly better.
Fadeiye (2005) regarded instructional materials as real or intangible visual and audio-visual aids used by instructors to increase the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. According to Agina-Obu (2005), all types of instructional materials appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) defined instructional materials as things or technology that help instructors convey their teachings to students in a logical and sequential manner. Teachers employ instructional resources, according to Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014), to enhance explanations and make subject matter learning clear to students throughout the teaching learning process. In a similar vein, Obanya (2004) said that various studies conducted in several Nigerian communities revealed that the outcomes of Senior School Certificate Examinations were absolutely poor in practically all courses provided by the pupils. He went on to say that just approximately 10% of the candidates’meaningfully passed’ the test. According to Abdu-Raheem (2011), the lack of availability and quality of instructional resources are important factors of the educational system’s ineffectiveness and kids’ low performance un school. According to Ahmed (2003), in most Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning take place in an inhospitable atmosphere with limited access to necessary resources. According to Eniayewu (2005), it is critical to employ instructional aids for instructional delivery in order for students to get more information and improve academic standards. Furthermore, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) emphasized the need of having instructional materials available in order to achieve successful educational delivery and monitoring in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) raised awareness of the inadequacy and underuse of instructional materials needed to correct for sense organ deficiencies and enhance the capability of dominant organs. He said that school instructors should do their utmost to provide locally manufactured materials in place of conventional ones in order to promote their teachings. Basic supplies such as textbooks, chalkboards, and necessary technology like as computers, projectors, televisions, and video are not easily accessible in many schools, according to Enaigbe (2009).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor level of performance of secondary school pupils in both local and standardized tests is one of the primary issues confronting Nigeria’s education industry. Over time, it has become a major source of worry for scholars, educators, and other education stakeholders. It was discovered that students often fail tests as a result of ineffective teaching techniques and a lack of necessary teaching tools (Afolabi, 2009). During the teaching process, instructional materials, also known as teaching aids, are shown to make education more relevant, clear, and engaging for students. There is a widespread perception that education is failing to achieve its goals, particularly given the high rate of pupils failing to pass the senior secondary certificate test. In all of Nigeria’s secondary schools, the situation has become hazardous. Governments, educational institutions, and other concerned people are concerned about the educational system’s inability to offer necessary and suitable teaching-learning aids in order to enhance student academic performance.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is the significance of instructional materials on the academic achievement of secondary schools students, specifically the study intends to;
- To examine the availability of instructional materials in secondary schools in Ogun state.
- To examine the benefit of instructional materials and its impact on students academic achievement.
- To assess the challenges faced by teachers in attaining and using quality instructional materials.
- To investigate the effect of lack of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- Is there an availability of instructional materials in secondary schools in Ogun state?
- What are the benefit of instructional materials and its impact on students academic achievement?
- What are the challenges faced by teachers in attaining and using quality instructional materials?
- What are the effect of lack of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study intended to find the significance of instructional materials on the academic achievement of secondary schools students. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. Since the beginning of secondary schools, the government and local communities have been putting more emphasis on the construction of new class-rooms, and recently, construction of laboratories. However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work will examine the availability of instructional materials in secondary schools in Ogun state. The study will also examine the benefit of instructional materials and its impact on students academic achievement. The study will further assess the challenges faced by teachers in attaining and using quality instructional materials.
Lastly, the study will investigate the effect of lack of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students. Hence this study will be delimited to Abeokuta North local government, Ogun state.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential.
Refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.
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