An Investigation On Safety Procedure In Science Laboratory In Selected Secondary School
This study investigated the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school Kano Metropolis. The study was conducted with three objectives, using descriptive survey design. Three questionnaires for students and teachers respectively were used for the study. The sample size for the study was 346 out of a population of35dd. Systematic sampling technique was employed, giving the questionnaire to every odd numbered student from their class register. The population of science teachers was 24 all of which was used for the sampling. Findings revealed that students handle breakable laboratory equipment and facilities carefully at a high level, safety rules and regulations are taken to prevent the occurrence of accident in laboratories ; and that the safety rules and regulations were enforced by teachers and lab-technicians in the laboratory in senior secondary schools in Kano metropolis. It is recommended that students should always be guided in handling laboratory equipment from time to time, as new equipment are introduced at every stage of learning.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Laboratory safety involves the development of skills and responsibility and must be an integral part of every chemistry curriculum. This means that safety awareness must be integrated into each laboratory practical classes so that students will be protected from injuries that could result from handling laboratory equipment and reagents. A Laboratory is an integral part of teaching and learning, where students see practically what they learn during classes. The laboratory is central to instruction and forms an essential component of education. It is here in the laboratory that students learn how to handle apparatus, think independently and learn to be aware of common dangers and take wise precautions to prevent or limit the occurrences of these dangers (Owoyemi, 2012). Practical activities can be described as the activities which students undertake using chemicals and equipment in a laboratory. Reid and Shah (2007) discussed the rationale for practical activities in learning and were of the view that for practical activities to be effective, the goals, aims and objectives should be well defined. Abdullah (2007) stated that when science concepts are taught using practical activities they enhance the quality and the extent of scientific understanding that could be achieved by students, while Omosewo (2006) was of the view that a deeper understanding of the science and technology process can be achieved through practical activities, which encourage active participation and serve to develop critical thinking.
Literature reviewed by; Walters, Lawrence, and Jalsa (2017) investigated the current state of chemical laboratory safety awareness, attitudes and practices among tertiary students in Trinidad. They conducted a cross-sectional survey at three institutions with a sample size of 226 students. They used self-administered questionnaire to collect data which were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and binary logistic regression. Additionally, they conducted semi-structured interview with a member of the supervisory staff at each institution to gain insight into the established safety procedures. Their results show that though awareness was high there were deficiencies in the areas of hazard identification and emergency response. Attitudes and practices were acceptable but needed improvement, with a weak correlation existing between thèse two variables. The characteristics of the particular institution were found to be the only predictor of the likelihood of accidents. In another study, Feszterovà (2015) investigated safety in chemistry laboratory. He concluded that Work in chemical laboratory is connected with verification and enhancing theoretic knowledge, growth of skills and above all adoption of practice of safe work. Artdej (2012) reported that a great majority of students misunderstood the meaning of safety signs. Safety moments provide a simple but useful approach to build stronger lab safety awareness in academia (Ting, 2020).
In another study carried out by Usman(2009) on the evaluation of safety practices in Science Laboratories in selected secondary schools in Funtua local government area, Katsina State, it was found that students’ habits do not cause much of the accidents in the science laboratory. Results of his study indicated that the students have good working habits except a case where a Bunsen bumer was left on after use and this indicated that the students were not fully conscious of the safety practices in the science laboratory. Maryam (2011) also carried out another study in Zaria on common laboratory accidents and their causes in which a questionnaire was administered to teachers and students from five selected secondary schools and the results were presented in form of bar charts. The results showed that the most frequent accidents that occur in the laboratories of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Integrated Science to be; inhalation of poisonous gas, breakage of glass wares, and burns from hot equipment, there were more burns and breakages of glass ware than any other accident. No fire outbreaks and explosions were recorded. Based on the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students’ population in public secondary schools in Kano metropolis is increasing rapidly. This has resulted in a high population of students that attend practical classes. It is generally accepted as reported by West (2005) that when a laboratory is overcrowded, as the number of students exceed 24, there is rowdiness and greater chance for accidents to occur in the laboratory. There is no steady water supply in the schools in Kano metropolis which is used in the event whereby acid or some other dangerous chemical spills on the body or eyes of a student. Water is also used to put out fire in case some chemical causes wooden facilities to catch fire. Epileptic power supply in Nigeria and Kano in particular is a source of hazard in school laboratories. This is because some chemicals require a constant temperature to avoid degeneration and becoming dangerous by causing explosions, or by expiring and becoming toxic to handle by teachers and students. Based on the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study to examine the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school Kano Metropolis, to make the research easier the specified objectives are:
- To find out the level at which secondary school students in Kano metropolis handle breakable laboratory equipment in consideration of safety standards and rules.
- To find out the safety measures taken to prevent accidents in chemistry laboratory in secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- To find out how secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis and laboratory technicians enforce safety rules and regulations in the laboratory.
1.4 Research Questions
Every research work is stirred up as a result of problem situation. In other words, research is a product or an off-shoot of a problem situation. This project is aimed at finding answers to the following questions:
- How do students handle breakable equipment and facilities in the laboratories?
- What safety measures are taken to prevent the occurrence of accidents in chemistry laboratories in secondary schools in Kano metropolis?
- How do the teachers and laboratory technicians enforce safety rules and regulations in the laboratory?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There are no adequate safety measures for the prevention of laboratory accidents among secondary school students.
- Ha: There are adequate safety measures for the prevention of laboratory accidents among secondary school students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
There is little research work available in Nigeria on the safety of students in the science laboratory. This study was intended to examine science laboratory safety in secondary schools in the County and to help administrators and school system policymakers in reducing dangerous chemical use and implementing responsible chemical management practices. Therefore, the study will give more insights to the school administrators institutionalize safe laboratory practices meant to minimize the incidences of accidents, exposures, and emergency scenarios in schools leading to science laboratory safety. This study focused on broad policy considerations that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends school administrators consider implementing proper management and use of all dangerous chemicals (EPA, 2006).
The study is also significant because the results can be used by schools as a blueprint for the best safety practices that enhance safety among learners in the laboratories. Parents and others in the community interested in school health and safety policies also may use this document to determine whether their children’s schools are effectively minimizing potential exposure to dangerous chemicals and products.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will focus on the investigation on safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school. Geographically, this study will be delimited to Kano State.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Safety simple means a state of being secure, protected, uninjured, out of danger and not involved in risk. Is a co-efficient of common sense, knowledge of physical, chemical and physiological effects of substances and knowledge of behaviour of human beings.
Care taken before an event or accidents in order to prevent it happening or in order to cause it to happen without doing harm.
Substance used in or obtained by chemistry.
The order or regular way of doing things
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school Kano Metropolis. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the safety procedure in science laboratory in selected secondary school Kano Metropolis. The study is was specifically set to find out the level at which secondary school students in Kano metropolis handle breakable laboratory equipment in consideration of safety standards and rules, find out the safety measures taken to prevent accidents in chemistry laboratory in secondary schools in Kano metropolis, find out how secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis and laboratory technicians enforce safety rules and regulations in the laboratory.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 346 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are science teachers and students in the selected public senior secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
Based on the result in this study, it is concluded that students know how to handle breakable laboratory equipment, safety measures are taken to prevent occurrence of accidents in laboratories in secondary schools in Kano metropolis, and teachers as well as laboratory technicians enforce safety rules and regulations as required in all laboratories in order to prevent accidents and assurance of quality teaching and learning for effective development.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- It is recommended that students should always be guided in handling laboratory equipment from time to time, as new equipment are introduced at every stage of learning.
- Emergency exits should be provided in all the laboratories in secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Reagents and facilities should always be set ready for the experiment by the laboratory technician in other to avoid handling of such dangerous substances by students.
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