Investigation Into The Causes And Remedial Measures Of Pavement Failure (Case Study Of Ganmo-Afon Road Kwra State)

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Investigation Into The Causes And Remedial Measures Of Pavement Failure (Case Study Of Ganmo-Afon Road Kwra State)


This project focuses on investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure at Ganmon-Afon road Kwara State.

The measuring of pavement and types of pavement. Types of pavement failures causes of pavement were studied and possible solution were provided. Form the investigation causes of pavement failure were identified as ranging from. Use of substandard materials. Inadequate compaction. Poor material strength due to the presence of refuse particle in the materials used. Poor maintenance improper drainage and improper chamber of the road. Some major are pothole, defects observed on the roads are cracking reveling rutting, blast erosion edge deterioration and drainage blockage. The soil samples were collected from three deferent portion of the road. The photographs of failed section were taken. Those problems can be ratified by not compromising standard of work during construction proper maintenance practices from time to and high quality control measure during construction and rehabilitation.

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Declaration
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Aims and objective
  • 1.2 Scope and objective
  • 1.3 Justification
  • 1.4 Research methodology

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Failure Of Pavement and their
  • 2.1.1 Structural failure
  • 2.1.2 Function failure
  • 2.2.2 Factor to be considered in the construction of Road
  • 2.2.3 Geological Factor (design)
  • 2.2.2 Geotechnical Factor
  • 2.2.3 Usage factor
  • 2.3 Common form of pavement
  • 2.3.1 Potholes
  • 2.3.2 Wheel ruthing
  • 2.3.3 Cracking
  • 2.3.4 revealing (pitting)
  • 2.3.5 Blast erosion
  • 2.3.6 Distortion and wave
  • 2.3.7 Peeling

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Reconnance survey of Ganmo- Afon Road
  • 3.2 Various Types of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Road
  • 3.3 collection of Samples for Laboratory Test
  • 3.3.1 Laboratory Test and Procedures
  • 3.3.2 Compaction Test
  • 3.4 California Bearing Ration (CBT) Test

Chapter Four

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results

  • 4.1 Types and Causes of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Roads
  • 4.2 Subgrade Materials
  • 4.3 Relative Compaction
  • 4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBT)

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 conclusions
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one part or place to another. So road transportation is one of the most efficient means of transportation all over the world.

The efficiency and convenience of transportation of goods and passengers are determined by function of road pavement our daily activities required the movement from one location to another either by one mode of transportation or by combining at different modes of transportation.

According to Oguara (2010) roads represent the major areas at investment in transportation and are the most dominant travel mode accounting for over 90% of passengers and goods transport in Nigeria road one of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the state of Nigerian roads Ette (2010) states that there was a road not work study that commissioned in 1998/1999. This study cover all inter-urban road which had a traffic of move than 30 vehicle day and a total length of around 53. 00km

So the way of placing the pavement on the road networks also contribute to the social economic growth and to the development of the communities. Pavements take an important part in over all towns and countries planning.
Highway engineers have always been trying their best to design construct and maintain high way in Nigeria and beyond but upon all their best and technical know how, the roads are still failing and accommodation series of defect as the days goes by it’s high time to see into the causes and effects these road failures and their result on the uses also the life span at the road so as to fulfill its intending purpose.

Highway maintenance purposely keep pavement in a satisfactory condition so as not to obstruct the traffic flow on the road maintenance of asphalt pavement is referred to as a set of organized activities that carried out in order to keep pavement in its best operational condition with minimum cost required.

Roads is constructed without any scientific basis will require elaborate maintenance but if they are constructed adopting all the scientific fundamentals even then they require maintenance but to the lesser degree.

This project is to focus on investigation of pavement failure and their remedial measure on Ganmo- Afon road and possible solution would be provided to correct those failure it will also explain what highway pavement will be included. Ganmo Road designation are classified into four groups which are:

(1) Express Road:

These are international roads linking other neighboring countries and inter-states linking man political and commercial centre will high volume capacity for example Lagos to Ibadan express way.

(2) Truck Road:

These are roads in the purposely for heavy traffic charring route between political and economic cities example are Ogbomosho to Ilorin road.

(3) Principal Road:

These are major roads in the state link important political and industrial together for example Maraba to Kwara State Polytechnic Road.

(4) Non Principal Road:

These are collection road in both urban and rural areas which link important town in local Government area together. Therefore road as a matter of fact must be given an adequate attention to both its design and construction stage in order to accord its engineering purposes.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the Nigeria roads e.g Natural conditions, traffic conditions, and construction materials are the main causes of soft spots on the earth road edge damage of bituminous pavement, culvert slide down slide ditch erosion, side drain deposition e.t.c.

1.3 Aim and Objective

Investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure Ganmo-Afon Road, Kwara State.

1.4 Objectives

  1. To take inventory of pavement failure of Ganmo-Afon Road
  2. To investigate into causes of pavement failure at Ganmo-Afon Road.
  3. To provide or recommend possible remedies to the problem identified.
  4. To carried out laboratory tests on soils collected from failed portions of the road.

1.5 Justification

Major paved roadways have lost their asphaltic surface and are in very poor condition to the extent that they are reverted to gravel roads. Some of the road system is not useable especially in high rainfall duration.

1.6 Scope Of Study

The scope of this project comprises of causes types and possible solution to pavement failure at Ganmo-Afon.
It also include some laboratory tests and also to know the C.B.R values of the sample abstained from the case study.

1.7 Description Of Study Area (Case Study)

This project was carried out at Ganmo-Afon roads, are roads that are from Ganmo Junction straight road that link other town of the road it’s a single carriage highway of about 3.5 wide. It made asphaltic flexible pavement.

1.8 Methodology

This can be described as the techniques considered to be used in carrying out this project; this project consists of various methods which could be used to carryout the studies required, so as to achieve the aims and objective of this project. The necessary methods are stated below:

(1) Aerial picture on the road:

It involves walking round the whole road to identify and examine the failures and the photography will be taken.

(2) Soil test:

The soil will be randomly sampled from the point of the failure along the road for the laboratory test to determine optimum moisture contents and maximum dry density (Compaction Test) and C.B.R test.

(3) Reconnaissance survey:

This will be done by taking a general over view of problem associated to the pavement failure from Ganmo-Afon Road in other to make necessary amendment.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Undoubtedly, road transportation system played a significant role in the provision of optimum mobility for socio-economic and political development of a settlement or city. Unfortunately, when one considers the quality of road transportation services, especially, within and outside the city, the overall assessment is minimal and falling level of safety and readability.

This write-up discussed the factors identified to be responsible for the causes of pavement failures arid the preventive measures considered viable.

It is a wrong conception for government to employed quack instead of qualified engineers. The truth is that they pay much more to rectify failures. The government should also give greater priority to road development and maintenance as it’s the major facility of socio-economic growth.

From the results, it has been concluded that failures on these roads might have been caused due to some of the under listed problems being faced by the road.

  1. Poor execution of the road.
  2. Inadequate surface course.
  3. Lack of proper maintenance.
  4. Age of pavement.
  5. Inadequate drainage facilities.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. The wealthy individuals, rural communities, urban communities, students bodies, corporate organization e.t.c should take interest in road maintenance and construction.
  2. Nevertheless, to improve the riding quality of the roads, it is recommended that the potholes needs to be filled with good quality materials and 30mm asphalt overlays which will completely reseal the surface and renew the roadway facilities.
  3. Adequate reinforced concrete drainage should be provided to drain off surface water especially during the period of rainfall and adequate maintenance options should be adopted.
  4. Increase the elevation at ganmo-afon road intersection with support the easy flow water and removed the weak part of pavement and reconstruction with the use of material that meets the specification C.B.R. it optimum moisture content and maximum dry density and compaction effort.
  5. Improper chamber of the road, cruse stone and asphaltic concrete surface that meet specification must be used.

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