An Investigation On The Nexus Between Teacher’s Pay, Class Size, And Student Academic Performance

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An Investigation On The Nexus Between Teacher’s Pay, Class Size, And Student Academic Performance

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The pursuit of educational excellence has long been one of the world’s major priorities leading to a popular adage which says If somebody claims that education is costly, let him or her try ignorant. It has been determined that education is the key with which any nation can permanently seal the doors of poverty and ignorance while simultaneously opening the doors of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social environment, and civilization. The Nigerian content to the above viewpoint, on the other hand, makes no difference. Education is a constitutional entitlement for all citizens, regardless of social, cultural, economic, political, religious, tribal, mental, or physical status (Ajibade, 1993). That is, education is a tool for achieving national development. Nigeria’s educational objectives in terms of the person and the society are outlined in the National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004). To that purpose, the National Policy on Education established certain aims and objectives to support the country’s educational progress hence teachers play critical roles in promoting those goals and objectives.

Teachers play an important role in the learning process in schools, and their attitudes and effectiveness can vary depending on the incentives they face. Pay structure has the potential to be a major incentive-tool in the hands of education policymakers, and plans that link pay to performance have lately been studied and implemented in various nations. An Education Next study using data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development found students achieve at higher levels in math and reading in countries that pay teachers more for their skills. Researches came to a predictable conclusion that students educated by teachers with higher cognitive abilities typically outperform those taught by mediocre or subpar scholars. Consequently, increasing the teacher talent pool by raising starting salaries may attract higher quality teachers and effectively raise student performance across the country. Without them, the school cannot exist. The government of Nigeria also recognized the importance of teachers when it says that no education can rise above the quality of its teachers (Wilson & Western, 2001).

On the hand, no organized teaching can take outside the classroom, which reveals classroom as an important variable in the learning environment. As a result of free education, the students’ enrolment began to increase tremendously to the extent that the ratio of teacher-students has now gone beyond control and the teachers are the one that translate educational philosophy and objectives into knowledge and skills and transfer them to students in the classroom as a safe, healthy and happy place with supportive resources.. According to the National Education Policy Center Policy Brief; “the policy brief summarizes the academic literature on the impact of class size and finds that class size is an important determinant of a variety of student outcomes, ranging from test scores to broader life outcomes…” Schanzenbach, D. W. (2014). To crown it all, when the class is to large and the salary is not encouraging, there is tendency for poor academic performance of the students. White House Report (2012).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nigerian students’ WAEC and NECO results are no longer anything to be proud of within the last decade. Secondary school students, as well as their parents, are now willing to spend any amount for an unique test center while Some teachers are even willing to compose micro-sheets for their “candidate” in order for them to excel in national examinations and other tests. This has kep educators, researcher and stakehoders of education in awe on this anomie. According to Bajah (1991), the sustainability of curriculum is determined by the classroom teacher, who is the one who puts all of our ideas into action therefore his/her traits, experience, and behavior impact the learning environment of their student depending on the salary offered which can serve as a motivation or demotivate them which in turn affects the stduent academic achievement. The growth teacher’s underpayment is on the rise suc that many upcoming ones do not dream of becoming a teacher as a result of poor payment of salary or salary delay and some other impetus that may be taking teachers’ concentration from their teaching profession. Other factors that may have an impact on students’ academic is class size variable. Wosayanju, (2005) maintained that large class may pose some teaching challenges such as delayed feedback, resulting in inefficiency, poor quality of students, and reduction in teaching with less assignment so as to reduce the burden of marking, all of which may encourage shallow learning.

Although several studies has been carried on the notion of class size and student academic achievement, little attention has been given to the association between teacher’s salary, class size and student academic performance. Therefore it is upon this backdrop that this study seeks to present an investigation on the nexus between teacher’s pay, class size, and student academic performance.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to present an investigation on the nexus between teacher’s pay, class size, and student academic performance.

Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. To determine the extent will teachers’ remuneration affect teachers’ efficiency
  2. To investigate if prompt salary payment of teacher motivates their effectiveness in his/her teaching profession?
  3. To ascertain whether student-teacher ratio in class room affect effective learning outcome.
  4. To examine whether over-crowded and small class size student has a significant effect on student academic achievement.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

The following tentative statement guides the study:

  • HO1: There is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance
  • HO2: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ motivation, remuneration, prompt salary payment and students’ academic performance.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Findings from this study will be beneficial to the following stakeholders in the education sector: Teachers are the translators of educational policies into practice. The teachers‘ role in education is very important; without the teacher the whole educational plans will be a total failure. Therefore would-be teachers will be informed of their importance to the educational process; they will be enlightened on their need to consider the students and resolve to put in their best so that students can also be assisted to be at their best. The policy makers will find the findings of this work useful in that it will enable them to know the relationship between the variables. That emphasis should not be on enrolment but the teacher factor should also be considered in any planning see to the prompt salary payment and remuneration of teachers at all level of education. The study will enlighten proprietors on the need to make provision of spacious classroom and match teacher’s ratio with that of student in other to enhance effective teaching and learning. Findings of the study will also contribute to the body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to con duct further studies in related field.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The broad scope of this study borders on an investigation on the nexus between teacher’s pay, class size, and student academic performance. The study will also consider remuneration and prompt salary payment affect teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness in his/her teaching profession. More so, student-teacher ratio in class room, over-crowded and small class size student has a significant effect on student academic achievement. The study is however delimited to Lafia Metropolis in Nassarawa State

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only secondary schools in Oyo State. Thus findings of this study cannot be generalized for other secondary schools in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8 Definition of Terms


This is a room-like in which teaching-learning take place for a specific period


This is the experienced man or woman who is certified to impact knowledge to the lower learner


This is an offering as a result of service rendering


This is the person that learn from the teacher


This is the result that show that the student understand what he has been thought

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does class size affect students’ academic performance?

Based on the findings, it was discovered that large class size negatively affects students’ academic performance. The study recommends that a national policy on teacher- student ratio should be implemented. More qualified teachers should be employed and workshops should be organized for already employed ones.

How will the a questionnaire be administered to students?

A questionnaire will be administered to obtain the necessary information for this study. The student will answer it in a short period of time, from 15 to 20 minutes, in the first accounting course classroom. The Principal Investigator (PI) will provide a questionnaire for each student with the instructions, one scantron answer sheet, and #2 pencil.

Do combined external classroom factors matter for private universities?

The effect of combined external classroom factors was not statistically significant for private universities to analyze the data.

What are the effects of overcrowded classrooms?

Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not 6 fallow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.

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