An Investigation Of The Effects Of Overpopulation On The Living Standard Of Citizens In Lagos State

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Overpopulation On The Living Standard Of Citizens In Lagos State

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Lagos state is one of the major states in Nigeria and the population is constantly rising as a result of the push and pull factors associated with it. The oil boom that occurred in the 1970’s also contributed to this increase. According to Alteri (2016), one of the effects of overpopulation is the strain on limited resource supplies to meet the demands of an expanding population. By 2030, approximately half of the world’s population will be living in “resource stressed” regions, which are characterized as areas where demand for resources exceeds supply, either due to a lack of supply or poor quality. Since 1990, the world’s population has grown by a total of eighty million people, increasing the need for resources per year (United Nations World Report). This rising demand for water for instance, would have an effect on production of food.

As a result of this increase in population government policies and expenditure have changed over the years. Government expenditure, which has been at the forefront of macroeconomic policies in Lagos due to the growing public needs of the states’ growing population, is the government’s annual expenditure on goods and facilities for the economy’s growth and development (JeffAnyeneh, 2018). Recurrent and capital expenditures are the two types of government spending. According to Jeff-Anyeneh (2018), recurrent expenditures are usually for the day-to-day operations of government employees, whereas capital expenditures are for productive economic activities such as job creation, poverty reduction, and increased labor productivity, among other things.

This expenditure can affect the standard of living of the citizens of Lagos State, as it affects per capita income. Per capita income is commonly used to determine a citizen’s standard of living. The amount of money earned per person in a given area is referred to as per capita income. The total per-person income for a city, province, or nation is referred to as income per capita, and it is used to assess the standard of living and quality of life in various regions. It can be determined for a country by dividing its total population by its national revenue. According to Nduka, Ananwude and Osakwe (2019), it is useful because it is well accepted, it can be easily estimated from readily available gross domestic product (GDP) and separated by population figures, and it produces a useful metric for comparing the standard of life between sovereign realms. This aids in determining a country’s level of growth. It is one of the three factors used to calculate a country’s human development index.

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The population of Lagos state is constantly on the increase as a result of its employment opportunities, investment opportunities. Rural–urban migration has been the primary engine of development in Lagos for the past 50 years. Push forces such as a shortage of work openings and poor incomes drive people to flee the countryside. Pull factors such as the promise of well-paying jobs and the allure of a metropolitan lifestyle draw them to the area.

Another factor behind Lagos’ population growth is the city’s high rate of natural population growth. Since most migrants to the city are young, this is due to the city’s youthful population. Nigeria is rapidly becoming a more urbanized region. These push and pull factors are mainly what have led to the migration of people to Lagos state causing a spike in the population, rural regions have inadequate educational and health facilities. The atmosphere is becoming less stable as the climate changes. Droughts and flooding are becoming more common. Farming pays low wages however necessitates a great deal of effort. Other than forestry, there are few work options. Owing to population increase, there is a land scarcity.

The effects of the state being overpopulated outweigh the benefits, benefits include; increase Labor force and manpower, which result into higher productivity, however, on the other hand, it can lead to a higher cost of living and when citizens are unable to live up to that standard, they live below the standard and a state of poverty sets in. This study seeks to investigate the effects of Lagos state being overpopulated.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To determine the major causes of overpopulation in Lagos state.
  2. To investigate the effects of the state being overpopulated.
  3. To proffer solutions that would promote diffusion of citizens of Lagos to other states.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the major causes of overpopulation in Lagos state?
  2. What are the effects of the state being overpopulated?
  3. What are the possible solutions that would promote diffusion of citizens of Lagos to other states?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will be helpful to Lagos state Government and governments of other states in Nigeria in creating awareness of the effects of overpopulation and on how to diffuse the population properly. It will be also be helpful to other scholars or researchers who want to delve deeper and explore other states in depth.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study is limited to the effects of overpopulation in Lagos state and how it can affect the standard of living of citizens only.

Push and pull factors causing the spike in the population will also be discussed in this study.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

This study was limited only by funds, the researcher did not have enough funds to delve deeper into the research.

1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

1. Overpopulation:

The rate at which the numbers of people occupying a particular place becomes more than the available resources or basic needs.

2. Standard Of Living:

A person’s or a community’s level of financial and material comfort.

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An Investigation Of The Effects Of Overpopulation On The Living Standard Of Citizens In Lagos State


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