An Investigation Of The Effect Of Vocational Studies On University Graduates

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An Investigation Of The Effect Of Vocational Studies On University Graduates


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In several sectors of the social economy and social life, UNESCO (2010) defines vocational education and training as “an educational process leading to the development of practical skills, attitudes, knowledge, and skills.” VET as an educational system contributes to the management of economic and development challenges (Quisumbing, 2001). However, this is true when VET is implemented in a manner that meets the needs of the people. VET must also be customized to the needs of the setting. Socially, economically, culturally, and politically. A nation’s power, according to Alam (2008), rests in its people. As a result, vocational training is crucial to human development because the quality and relevance of the vocational training provided determines the kind of development a country will experience. However, according to Wallenborn (2009), growth in developing countries, notably in Africa, is slower than in rich countries due to the poor quality of education and training available. The problem of educational and training quality is also addressed by VET. As a consequence, VET makes a negligible contribution to African development. This is due to factors linked to the execution of vocational training. Many countries across the world have used and continue to employ vocational training as a development strategy, including Australia, Germany, China, Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Botswana, and Africa South (Alam, 2008). Australia and Germany have embraced vocational training to educate young people with skills and knowledge in order to solve the problem of youth unemployment (Iacovou and Arnstein, 2007). As a method to foster the production of trained workers, VET has been extended in nations such as Taiwan, China, and India (UNESCO, 2009). As a consequence, productivity rises, and economic growth follows. On the other hand, vocational education and training (VET) continues to play a role in supporting social development. This exemplifies how VET may be used for a multitude of purposes in development. VET was also created to help people get out of poverty. VET is a program that helps young people develop skills and is one of various poverty-reduction measures. 2 | P a g e According to Tikley (2012), the VET system should consider a number of contextual factors. Because VET does not contain environmental components, it is less successful as a development tool. Vocational training, as a youth program, must also reflect the dynamics of youth.


1.2 Problem Statement

Young people in the twentieth century face more development challenges and are more likely to fall into poverty, according to Colley et al. (2007). Young people aged 15 to 24 who face significant challenges in achieving or maintaining well-being are considered vulnerable in this context (Berzin, 2010). Despite their efforts and accolades in the field of vocational training, there are arguments made to defend their role and efficacy as trainees (Filmer & Fox, 2014). These factors stem from the fact that vocational education and training (VET) does not produce skilled professionals who can contribute to Africa’s development (UNESCO, 2006). Although vocational education and training (VET) has aided in the training and development of young university graduates to some extent, it has not only provided trained employees to meet labor market demands (Berzin, 2010). This is due to social and economic factors that impede VET implementation and cause the program to fall short of its objectives. One of these objectives is to use VET to reduce the unemployment rate of young university graduates. In Nigerian VET, there are a lot of disagreements and uncertainties.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of vocational studies on university graduates . Specifically the study intends to:

  1. To examine the effect of Vocational studies on employment of graduate trainee.
  2. To examine the benefit of vocational studies on young University graduate trainee.
  3. To examine the effect of Vocational studies on entrepreneurial skill of graduate trainee
  4. To examine the factors affecting effective implementation of vocational studies in Nigeria

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study aims to help the public take a comprehensive approach to impact of vocational studies. The study will also be of interest to higher education institutions, research institutes and individual researchers interested in vocational studies and will use the results for further research. The research will help individual understand their position relative to the vocational skills.


1.5 Study Hypothesis

The study hypothesis is:

Hypothesis one
  • HO: The effect of Vocational studies does not have an impact on employment of graduate trainee
  • H1: The effect of Vocational studies does have an impact on employment of graduate trainee
Hypothesis two
  • HO: Vocational studies does not significantly affect entrepreneurial skill of graduate trainee
  • H1: Vocational studies significantly affect entrepreneurial skill of graduate trainee

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study will examine the effect of Vocational studies on employment of graduate trainee. The study will also examine the benefit of vocational studies on young University graduate trainee. The study will further examine the effect of Vocational studies on enterprenural skill of graduate trainee. Lastly, the study will examine the factors affecting effective implementation of vocational studies in Nigeria. Hence the study is delimited to graduates in Edo State.


1.7 Definition of Basic Terminologies

Transition to Work:

Securing of employment in the formal or informal sector after successful completion of vocational training (Clark, 2007).

Vocational Education and Training:

Education which prepares trainees for jobs based on manual or practical approach (Clark, 2007).

Vocational Training:

It entails equipping learners with skills such as carpentry, tailoring, masonry and so on (Clark, 2007).


1.8 Organisation of Study

The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.


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