An Investigation On The Effect Of Various Packaging Material On The Quality Attributes Of Suya (Meat)
This study was conducted to determine the effects of processing techniques and packaging materials on the quality of Suya meat. Materials and Methods. Grilling and roasting techniques were used to process lean beef meat each weighing 1.5 kg. After processing, the samples were packaged in four different materials, Glass jar, Aluminium foil, Cling film and Paper up to a period of seven days and the proximate composition of the samples were analysed for ash, crude protein and fat. The moisture content of each sample was also determined in the laboratory.
1.1 Background of the Study
Meat is a flesh of animals consumed for foods. In the topics, the bulk of the meat consumed is derived from cow, sheep, cattle, pigs, camel etc. The other aspect of a dead animal such as the offal’s (kidney, liver, intestine etc) and the skin are often consumed, but one not termed meat; which ever part of it is meat is usually consumed for its high quality protein content essential for body growth and repairs.
The proportions of meat derived foods that one consumed are related to the general, affluence of the society in which he lives. Meat consumption in the developed countries is more than in less developed countries is more than in less developed countries. Ihekoronye, A. I and Ngoddy, P.O. (1985)
The most common meat product include Beef (cow), pork (pig), mutton (sheep) and they are commonly used in making sausages, burgers, meat rolls suya meat and sometimes, they are eaten like that. The food technologist is not only interested in those products, but also mostly interested in the process leading to the slaughtering of animals final quality of meat or meat product is usually influenced by both.
Animal for slaughtering must be healthy and usually not so old. This requirement is necessary if a high quality product is to be obtained.
Suya is popular roasted and smoked sliced beet product, suya is a traditional meat product originating from the Northern part of Nigeria; and it has gained considerable acceptability and popularity in the south too. It is produced by community meant into straws and passing with slight pressure through sticks. The meat is sprinkled with spices, groundnut oil, dry pepper and heat treated by a process involving dry cooking (roasting) by heat from a burning wood or charcoal. Kafidiya, O.O. (1981)
Suya meat is an ideal source of animal protein and its inclusion in a balanced diets should go a long way towards improving nutrition, but technological problems need to be overcome before the product can be successfully and safely processed, packaged and presented to the consumer Igene, J. O. (1982).
Increased demand for convenience foods has resulted in expansion of the processed meat industry. The consumption of suya has been accelerated, especially in southern Nigeria. The traditional method of producing suya is processed with the view to effecting some modifications where necessary to improve hygiene, palatability, characteristics and shelf stability. Kafidya, O.O (1981).
The recent up range of food prices in Nigeria has been the result of a number of complex circumstances, both domestic and international.
A substantial amount of the diet protein in the nation is obtained from crops. The level of animal protein in take is only about 17 percent of this total protein consumed by the average Nigerian, which is far from minimum recommended this situation could be improved by developing the food processing sector, especially meat and meat products.
The high quality of meat protein is well established and is essential in the maintenance to a healthy population. Development in the quantitative as well as qualitative production of suya could have a remarkable impact on the animal protein nutrition in Nigeria in view of the diverse and cheap sources of raw materials for suya processing. Suya is within the reach of most members of the population due to its unit price and as such contributes to a growing proportions of the much needed animal protein.
The process of economic development in any society pre-surposes a structural and social transformation of immense proportions such a transformation requires changes in the attitudes of people, changing the techniques of production and changes in preferences. Consumers expect amongst other things that the food available to them be cheap, clean, safe, unadulterated, reasonable priced and handled under sanitary conditions; for this to be possible, systematic machinery needs to be developed so that the technological demands of the products as well as consumer are satisfied.
A prime source of long term productivity gains is technological innovation. New methods, new materials and new machines contribute to a faster rate of gain in output per man hour. Rapid organization has continued to raise income in the nation and has led to the changes in the nation an has led to the changes in the nature of demands for food with growing emphasis on convenience food such as ‘suya’. A revolution in the aesthetic qualitative and quantitative production of suya is one way by which Nigerian improves the level of protein nutrition of its people.
In many of the major urban area of the country, the number of suya meat, the number of suya meat has increased tremendously over the past decade, while consumption has become improved with respect to ethnicity, re4lijorn, socio- economic factor or sex. Unfortunately, however, suya production is still at its technology standard, in which the production me4thords that have been in use for the past generation are yet to be replaced or modernized to cope with increasing demand.
AS demand for improve suya becomes apparent, there is a need to focus more attentions on the search for ways to reduce the drudger in the suya industry. While government and foundation have expended millions of naira on research over the years to improve productivity of agriculture’s, research expenditure in the area of suya processing, packaging, storage and distribution has been non-existence, and the reason can be advanced for this phenomenon, it can be argued that the decision to transform any mode of production is basically economic. Such dissension involves:
- Availability of a more efficient production method.
- Calculation of the real benefit to be gained by effecting the change.
Although millions of people may be engaged in the production of suya, the industry has a slow rate of growth. At the moment, knowledge about the economic of the current procurement and production methods is the suya industries are non-existent. Nor is there any adequate scientific information abuo9t the nutritional and health effects of suya meat. No information exists as the health hazards or otherwise which is increased consumption of the product might stand foe the consumption population.
In fact, in the recent study by Igene and Mohammed (1981), it was reported that 74 percent of those surveyed expressed great dissatisfaction regarding the unhygienic conditions prevailing in the places where suya is processed and dispensed to consumers and 84 percent of those surveyed strongly believe that suya processed and dispensed in unhygienic surroundings could cause serious health bazaar risks to consumers. This is the big image problem of suya amongst the enlightened Nigerians (who incidentally could spend much money on suya but turn their back on the product for sanitary reasons).
The Major Areas in Which Research is Urgently Needed Into Many Aspects of Suya Production
Although, technical progress is the key to increasing food production. Information is necessary on research into many aspects of suya production and packaging. Among the major areas in which researchers is urgently needed are
- A survey of the economic of suya production.
- Determination of consumer preferences and attitudes to the product.
- Microbiological attributes or characteristics of the health and nutritional importance.
- Level of employment generation and mobility in the industry.
- Detailed scientific analysis and properties of the product in relation to accepted standards in the food and drug trade.
- Research into product development and packaging of improved suya product as well as more efficient techniques of suya processing, preservation and storage.
What emerge therefore from a resolution of the items (i – vi) which constituted a technological barrier would obviously lead to progress and technological innovation.
Suya as a Traditional Meat
suya is a traditional product and any innovation in technology must take cognizance of the nature of the product as such. A structural transformation of the suya industry is what is needed at the moment because the present procedure may not take advantage of available technology for obvious reason.
In the structural transformation one can imagine a situation whereby entrepreneurs and government could invest in the suya industry, thereby raising production above then primary level as well as taking production “off the streets” with the solely purpose of commercialization. The industry has many technological needs and it is possible indeed likely that some of these needs could only be meet through investment by entrepreneurs or government indigenous technological innovation.
Suya, being a traditional meat product would require certain technological innovation which could not be imported and which is not already in use in other industries. This is the crux of the matter. For technological innovation to succeed in the suya business, it must not only be efficient but also must conform to the traditional nature of the product to a large extent. It is therefore important that the critical requirement of the industry be conveyed to the engineering community if their efforts are to result in innovation which can succeed in the market place.
The food industry cannot survive in isolated place from the engineering society / community. Innovation is needed in the development of indigenous machinery and processors to enhance fabrication processing packaging and storage. The way to improve the suya industry therefore rests squarely on a structural transformation or the mode of procurement, processing, packaging and distribution.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aims and objectives of this project to
- Producing good quality suya meat.
- Packaging of suya meat in different packaging material e.g. foil paper, cellophane and cans to investigate the effect of the various packaging materials or the quality attribute of the suya meat.
- Carrying out method of processing suya by chemical and microbiological analysis in each case.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study to investigate the effect of various packaging materials on the quality attribute of Suya.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing challenges of packaging and quality attribute of Suya.
Although most dried meats are shelf-stable with regard to food safety, regardless of packaging (but due to lower water activity (aw) and pH), at this 21st century, processing without packaging of the product is a crude and incomplete production process. This research has also shown that proper packaging system for dried meats is important for both short and long term storage for maintenance or control of chemical and microbial shelf stability through prevention of pathogens, mould growth and product oxidation that is undesirable organoleptically. From this research it could be seen, that polypropylene package was a better packaging material having the least microbial load throughout storage period compared to high density polyethylene and the unpackaged meat samples, Furthermore, observations also showed that polypropylene transparent nature were more appealing to the sensory panelists than the translucent nature of the High Density Polyethylene packaged and unpackaged products, hence, the choice of polypropylene packaged meats.
Processing methods used in the preparation of Suya meat for consumption have effects on the quality attributes of the final products as the crude protein and fat content of roasted meat were 41.82 and 9.92 respectively which were significantly higher than that of the grilled meat which were 39.92 and 8.36 respectively. The use of roasting technique produced better products when compared with grilling technique. Packaging materials have effects on the quality attributes of the final products of Suya meat during storage due to variation in their properties, as the results show that crudeprotein and ash contents of samples stored in Glass Jar and Aluminium foil were higher than those stored in Cling film and Paper. Results show that samples stored in Glass jar and Aluminium foil have higher qualities and were not found to be significantly different from each other but were significantly different from those stored in Cling film and Paper which were of lower qualities. Therefore in order to obtain the best quality of processed meat, Suya meat is to be stored in Glass jar or Aluminium foil. Further research should be focussed on improvement of Cling film and Paper for handling Suya meat during storage as they are considered to be more economical and affordable as compared to Glass jar and Aluminium foil which are more expensive.
For greater success of this work, and at commercial level of production of suya meat products, It is recommended that:
- The need for enlightenment campaign for packaging of suya meat products among the sellers and retailers, this will help extend the shelf life.
- More research should be carried out on vacuum packaging, modified- atmosphere packaging and use of oxygen scavengers (a form of active packaging) in the packaging of our local meat products and in our tropical environment.
- Further work should be done on the effect of seasonal variation on the stability of Suya meat products.
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