Investigation Of The Effect Of IPOB Conflict On Lives And Properties In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Investigation Of The Effect Of IPOB Conflict On Lives And Properties In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria using Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria, to investigate the causes and effect of these conflict in Nigeria, to find out whether the IPOB conflict has contributed to the disunity in Nigeria and to investigate if the IPOB conflict have led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of indigence of Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria is high. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the cause and effect of IPOB conflict in Nigeria includes: injustice, marginalization,tribalism, ethnic rancour, and unfair treatment. Therefore,it is recommended that based on the findings of there is urgent need for Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure a fair and equitable distribution of resources among the six (6) geo-political zones of Nigeria via proper federal character system. This will go a long way in reducing what the IPOB perceived as marginalization. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Nigerian state since its emergence has been struggling with the challenge of how to coalesce the numerous ethnic nationalities in the country into one united nation. The challenge of forging national consciousness and unity among the different ethnic nationalities has always been compounded by the inability of the successive governments to frontally address the problems associated with citizenship, religion, ethnicity, inequality, resource distribution, native-settler dichotomy and development. The negative fallout from the situation has not only promoted disunity and mistrust among Nigerians but has manifested in the resentful disposition towards the Nigerian state exhibited by the nationalities that feel disadvantaged and aggrieved remaining in Nigeria. To this end, separatist agitations, which have been a regular feature of Nigerian politics, remain a veritable tool for the expression of discontent with the Nigerian state and a platform for demanding adequate political accommodation. With the aid of hindsight, these separatist agitations that date back to the era of British colonial administration cannot be adequately explained outside the context of poor leadership and the absence of an ideology with mass appeal (Tamuno, 1970). The interplay of power and forces between different ethnic nationalities that resort to separatist agitations has constantly threatened the continued existence of the Nigerian state. Unfortunately, the dominant political elites have not found any practical solution to this challenge. The advent, in 1999, of democracy which thrives in rule of law raised hopes that the enormous challenges besetting the Nigerian state, including separatist agitations, would be concretely addressed. The expectation was that democratic practice with its ideals of fairness, freedom, justice, equity and participation could provide a platform for accommodation that could address the issue. But events since then have shown that the challenge rather than being solved is exacerbating. By 1999, the Odua People’s Congress was the main group making separatist demands because of the annulment of the June 12, 1993 election which was believed to have been won by late MKO Abiola, a Yoruba from the Southwest. Today a plethora of separatist groups and social movements, with diverse aims and targets, exists in the six geopolitical zones of the country. The division of the country into six geopolitical zones (although not constitutionally recognized but which has become a platform for political accommodation by the government) seems to have aggravated the proliferation of separatist groups since it has made ethnic mobilization a bit easier for the specific ethnic groups occupying the different geopolitical zones. It is within the above context that we can locate separatist agitations among the Igbo ethnic group in Southeast, Nigeria(Ong’aya, 2008). The existence of separatist movements such as the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), Biafra Zionist Movement (BZM) and the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) all point to the perceived feelings of marginalization and discrimination of the Igbos. These ill-feelings which are part of the issues that led to the Nigerian-Biafran Civil War between 1967 and 1970 have persisted till date. The post war character of Nigerian politics in which the Igbo ethnic group appears to have been permanently denied the apex political position has not helped matters. Ironically, despite the cries of marginalization among the Igbos, the ideology and modus operanda of these separatist movements have always been in conflict with that of the mainstream Igbo political elite and leadership. Hence, often, they all appear to speak in discordant tunes. Meanwhile, in recent times, IPOB has stepped-up struggles for the actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra through protests and other forms of social mobilization. The protests have triggered tension and heightened insecurity and loss of lives and property. with the security agencies applying excessive force to quell the protests.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

With the emergence of re-agitation of self rule by the IPOB members, this has caused an uproar in the country and most especially in the South-Eastern part of the nation. The IPOB re-agitation for self-rule gradually metamorphosed into a severe conflict which has in turn led to the loss of lives and property. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the following:

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria.
  2. To investigate the causes and effect of these conflict in Nigeria.
  3. To find out whether the IPOB conflict has contributed to the disunity in Nigeria.
  4. To investigate if the IPOB conflict have led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the the prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria?
  2. What is the cause and effect of IPOB conflict in Nigeria?
  3. Has the IPOB conflict contributed to the disunity in Nigeria?
  4. Has the IPOB conflict have led to the misplacement of families in Nigeria?
  5. To what extent has the IPOB conflict led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: IPOB conflict has no effect on the loss of lives and properties in Nigeria.
  • Ha: IPOB conflict has an effect on the loss of lives and properties in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant for the following reasons:

It will shed more light to the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria

The findings from this study will serve as a benchmark for, UN peace organizations, government agencies , individuals and academia.

It will also serve as a guide to future researchers as it forms a basis on which other studies can be undertaken on the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study intends to investigate the effect of IPOB conflict on the lives and properties in Nigeria. This study is delimited to Imo state in the South-Eastern part of Nigeria. The respondents will comprise of indigence of Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study challenges encountered were that of:

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Conflict:

This can be said to be a struggle or clash between opposing forces in a battle.

Property:

This is an item that a person or a business has legal right over.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on investigation of the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria using Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on investigation of the effect of IPOB conflict on lives and properties in Nigeria using Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at to ascertain the prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria, to investigate the causes and effect of these conflict in Nigeria, to find out whether the IPOB conflict has contributed to the disunity in Nigeria and to investigate if the IPOB conflict have led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are indigence of Imo State resident in Owerri metropolis.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of IPOB conflict in Nigeria is high.
  2. The cause and effect of IPOB conflict in Nigeria includes: injustice, marginalization, tribalism, ethnic rancour, and unfair treatment.
  3. The IPOB conflict contributed to the disunity in Nigeria.
  4. The IPOB conflict have led to the misplacement of families in Nigeria?
  5. The extent the IPOB conflict led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria is high.

5.4 Recommendations

  1. Based on the findings of there is urgent need for Federal Government of Nigeria to ensure a fair and equitable distribution of resources among the six (6) geo-political zones of Nigeria via proper federal character system. This will go a long way in reducing what the IPOB perceived as marginalization.
  2. There should be power shift cum rotation (presidential post) among all the six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria; rather being an issue of the Southern and Northern-Nigeria. This will enable the IPOB; majorly dominated by the Igbo have a sense of belonging in Nigerian federalism. the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

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