An Investigation Of The Causes And Effect Of Cultism On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students
1.1 Background of the Study
The word cultism refers to a popular way of life, an attitude, or a concept, as well as a small group of individuals that practice extreme religion. The origins of covert cult activity in Nigerian higher education institutions are diabolical. When cultism was first established in the early 1980s, it was for the purpose of intellectual responsibility. These groups were initially innocuous and had excellent intentions at several colleges. It has lately evolved into a terrible force that threatens to rip our campus apart. In recent years, campus has morphed into a type of slaughterhouse, with gun-toting hoodlums, generally teenagers, beset by identity crises(Laolu, 2002).
Wole Soyinka, Tunji, Tobi, Ralph opera, Aigmokluide, and Olamuyiwa established and headed the first Nigerian cult organization. They created the “National Association of Sea Dogs” (NAS), which was subsequently changed to pirate confraternity, when they were students at the leading institution (University of Ibadan) (PC) The admission to the pirate confraternity was limited to individuals who are serious about their academic goals and are willing to protect their honor and reputation on campus(Laolu, 2002). One of the group’s goals is to fight colonialism, ensure human dignity, and rid Nigerian society of elitism and tribalism. The pirate confraternity began as an anti-colonial pressure group among the early youths. Their regalia was red, and their symbol was a skull with two crossed bones with blood dropping.
When Wole Soyinka and the founding fathers graduated, the pirate confraternity was still in operation, and during the process of selecting new leaders in the pirate leadership, “BolagiCaew” aka Rica Richard and some twenty wives formed another group called “the buccaneers confraternity” in the same university, college, as a result of ethical bias in the leadership (University of Ibadan).
The pace at which cultism is spreading in our educational institutions is disturbing. Our institutions, it may be said, are rapidly becoming breeding grounds for cultism and terrorism. This is nothing more than a denial of the basic reason for the establishment of the institutions (Peter, 2002). The problem has become an eyesore that must be addressed as soon as possible, since the future of our wonderful houses and country is in the hands of our kids, who are swimming in the clutches of the devil, man’s arch-enemy. According to Laolu (2002), the issue of cultism has evolved into a serious political danger that must be addressed in order for a crime-free society to emerge. The multi-faceted actions made by school officials and the government to address this malignant issue have continuously been tainted by it. Instead, has been growing in strength on a regular basis. In order to abolish cultism from our schools, we must recognize that certain stones that have not been totally turned over will need to be actively cared to. Also, want our youths to see the much-desired peace and intellectual advancement both on and off campus(Peter, 2002).
Cultism’s core issue is the insecure, dangerous, and emotional strain it causes across society, especially educational institutions, resulting in poor learning and plummeting academic success standards. Emotion and learning are inextricably linked. Learning is a process that leads to the production of new behaviors, while emotion is a result of behavior. Despite the fact that emotion is a result of behavior, it nonetheless impacts and directs learning and academic accomplishment. A central theme of Skinner’s psychology is that all creatures are impacted to a large degree by the consequences of their own actions (Isangedighi in Asagwara, 1994). Isangedighi went on to say that each action is always followed by an experience that is a result of the action. Emotion is triggered by events in the environment. For example, if a student hears a gunshot near his or her classroom block, such an interaction, if not handled properly, might cause emotional tension or terror, which can interfere with studying. Cultist activities have been publicized in both the electronic and print media in most sections of the nation, which may have had an impact on the learners’ learning effectiveness (Peter, 2002). Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the causes and effect of cultism on the academic performance of secondary school students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is little question that the institution of learning has evolved into a cult-like environment. The tentacles of cultism have now reached the secondary schools. The involvement of secondary schools students in cult groups has caused issues in the teaching of students in secondary schools and has had a significant impact on their educational achievement (Peter, 2002). As a result, the researcher came up with the concept of conducting a study in Rivers state on the variables affecting cultism in secondary schools and its impact on academic achievement.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective is to investigate the causes and effect of cultism on the academic performance of secondary school students. The specific objective of the study is as follows;
- To investigate the causes of cultism in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- To examine the effect of cultism on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria.
- To find out the challenges of school authority in eradicating cultism in secondary schools.
- To proffer solution as to how cultism can be eradicated in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The study attempt to find answers to the following research questions;
- What are the causes of cultism in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What are the effect of cultism on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria?
- What are the challenges of school authority in eradicating cultism in secondary schools?
- What solution can be proffer as to how cultism can be eradicated in secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that, the findings of this study will be of great importance to both educators and the students in general. The study will be of benefit to the educational administrators, policy maker and students in particular to identify the causes and effect, of cult activities on educational standard of primary schools in the country.
The study can also lead to other researchable variables with a view to find better solution to cultism, in our schools i.e. primary, primary and our higher institutions. If the findings and recommendations are utilized as supposed, it will create mush awareness among the parents educators and government functionaries to ameliorate problems of cultism in the country.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study will investigate the causes of cultism in secondary schools in Nigeria. The study will also examine the effect of cultism on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study will further find out the challenges of school authority in eradicating cultism in secondary schools. Lastly, the study will proffer solution as to how cultism can be eradicated in secondary schools in Nigeria. Hence the study will be delimited to Rivers state.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Just like any other research, unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, and inability to get data were among the constraints the researcher encountered in the cause of this study. Financial constraint was equally faced by the researcher, in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires. Furthermore, time factor pose another constraint because the researcher have to shuttle between writing of the research and engaging in other academic work which made it uneasy for the researcher.
1.7 Definition of Terms
It is a small group of people who have extreme religion.
A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
The measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the effects of cultism in schools?
The school authority will be forced to close down the school and students will not have a choice but to flee for their lives and safety. A school can be closed for days, months and even years. Students are prone to spend more years in school. This is a serious effect of cultism.
Why do people become cultist in Nigeria schools?
In Nigeria schools, the main reason why people become cultist is to fight those who oppress them, the wicked lecturer, school authorities and the opposite cult members. No wonder, the countless cases of murder, bloodshed, revenge in schools with high cultism rate. Some youths are found in this group so as to become known, dreaded and wealthy.
Are secret cults taking over secondary schools?
Secret cults are rampant in schools all over the world. It was known to be at its peak in tertiary institutions but it is no more news that has expanded their territories to secondary and even primary schools. This social vice ( read about other social vices here) is eating up the educational and moral standard of students.
How to fight against cultism?
Public Campaigns against Cultism Schools, religious houses, Parents, Students, government, non-governmental organization and the society as a whole should as a solution wage against cultism through seminars, workshops, campaigns, and talks. The dangers associated with it should be preached to the students.