Investigation Into Chemistry Teachers Perception In Incorporating Local Practices As Instructional Strategy On Secondary School Students Interest And Achievement In Chemistry

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Investigation Into Chemistry Teachers Perception In Incorporating Local Practices As Instructional Strategy On Secondary School Students Interest And Achievement In Chemistry


Abstract


Introduction to western education faced learners with conflicting demands of the new education and of their cultures as the purpose, content and processes of knowledge transmission conflicts with their indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP), thus making chemistry appear abstract to comprehend thereby promoting “diploma disease”. The purpose of this study was to; (i) investigate impact of IKSP teaching approach on learning outcomes of chemistry students, (ii) determine the relative effectiveness of IKSP and conventional method on learning outcomes of the students. This study employed mixed method research design and furthermore explanatory sequential design. The population comprises of all senior secondary school-one science students of Lagos educational district-V, while the sample consist intact classes from two different schools (control and experimental groups). Instruments for this study includes; (i) measurement instruments for data collection [are chemistry concepts comprehension test (CCCT), skill acquisition assessment (SAA) with reliability {r(37)=.74, p=.000] and r(37)=.90, p=.000}; Dansu indigenous knowledge system and practices interview guide (DIKSPIG)] and (ii) procedural instruments [IKSP teaching approach guide and conventional method teaching guide]. 182 students partook in the study. Research hypotheses were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The results obtained showed (i) that the experimental group performed better than control group in CCCT and SAA post-test; [T(1,182)=34.032, p=0.000>0.05, two-sided test] and [T(1,182)=0.715, p=0.398>0.05, two-sided test] (ii) no difference between the performance of male and female students in the experimental group in CCCT [T(1,98)=0.001, p=0.97>0.05] and SAA [T(1,98)=0.046, p=0.83>0.05] post-test (iii) that students engaged in artisanship after school hours showed greater performance in the entrepreneurial skill acquisition assessment than those who do not [T(1,98)=50.06, p=0.00>0.05, two-sided test]. Within its limitations, the study tentatively concluded that teaching students using IKSP approach enhances knowledge comprehension as well as entrepreneurial skill acquisition, and recommended that teachers should adopt the IKSP approach in teaching concepts in chemistry and other subjects.

Key words: Indigenous Knowledge System/Practices (IKSP), comprehension, retention, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation.


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literatures

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1.2 Indigenous Knowledge System
  • 2.1.3 The Science in the Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices
  • 2.1.4 Indigenous Knowledge in Educational Systems: What Role Can It Play?
  • 2.1.4.1 De-racialise African Educational Systems
  • 2.1.4.2 Promote Innovative Thinking as It Provides the Basis for Problem Solving Strategies for Local Communities
  • 2.1.4.3 Evaluate the Effectiveness of Conventional Science and Indigenous Knowledge
  • 2.1.4.4 Motivate and Generate Interest in Learners
  • 2.1.4.5 Teach Language and Instill a Sense of Self-consciousness and Cultural Identity
  • 2.1.4.6 Promote Dissemination of Indigenous Knowledge Across Cultures
  • 2.1.4.7 Promote Cultural Dimension of Development
  • 2.1.4.8 Promote Interpersonal Relationships and Reciprocal Obligations
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Constructivism
  • 2.2.1.1 More Knowledgeable Other
  • 2.2.1.2 Zone of Proximal Development
  • 2.2.1.3 How This Study Relates to Vygotsky’s Theory of Sociocultural Learning
  • 2.2.2 Ausubel’s Theory of Advance Organisers
  • 2.2.2.1 How This Study Relates to Ausubel’s Theory of Advance Organisers
  • 2.3 Students’ Academic Performance and Achievement in Chemistry
  • 2.4 Common Instructional Strategies/methods Used in the Teaching of Chemistry.
  • 2.4.1 Lecture Method
  • 2.4.2 Discussion Method
  • 2.4.3 Demonstration Method
  • 2.4.4 Concept Mapping
  • 2.4.5 Learning Cycle Models
  • 2.4.6 Indigenous/cultural Based Methods
  • 2.5 Review of Previous Studies

Chapter Three

Methods and Procedures

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instruments and Administration
  • 3.5.1 Measurement Instruments
  • 3.5.2 Procedural Instrument (Teachers’ Instructional Guides)
  • 3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
  • 3.6.1 Data Collection of Experimental Group
  • 3.6.2 Data Collection of Control Group
  • 3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of Research Instrument
  • 3.9 Reliability of Research Instrument
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

Results and Findings

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Data Analysis and Result Interpretation
  • 4.1.1 Demographic Data
  • 4.1.2 Results and Tables
  • 4.1.2.1 Students’ Comprehension Using Conventional and Iksp Approach
  • 4.1.2.2 Students’ Entrepreneurial Skills Using Conventional and Iksp Approach
  • 4.1.2.3 Comprehension of Male and Female Students Taught Using Iksp Approach
  • 4.1.2.4 Entrepreneurial Skills of Male and Female Students Taught Using Iksp
  • 4.1.2.5 Entrepreneurial Skills Between Students Engaged in Artisanship and Those Not Engaged in Artisanship in Iksp Group
  • 4.2 Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Research Hypotheses

Chapter Five

Discussion of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Discussion of Findings
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Suggestion on Further Studies
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Appendix III
  • Appendix IV

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances and how substances interact with energy. Chemistry is involved in everything we do, from growing and cooking food to cleaning our homes. Chemistry is one of the physical sciences that help us to describe and explain our world. There are five main branches of chemistry, each of which has many areas of study. They are: analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and biochemistry (Ademola in Okebukola, 2020).

Studies have shown that students’ underperformance in chemistry at the undergraduate level is due to the poor background of chemistry from pre-university level, that the students find chemistry concepts very complicated. Tertiary institutions are finding it difficult to enroll sufficient numbers of candidates in chemistry departments because of dwindling number of students satisfying the entrance requirements (Takawira and Admire, 2012). This have shown adverse effects on the advancement of science and technology in the country.

Chemistry educators echo that curriculum for secondary school chemistry should be designed to give students the opportunity to be actively involved in the process of learning (Oladejo, 2020). This will enable students to solve and decide their daily life problems based on scientific attitudes and noble values. It will also help to develop a dynamic and viable community in line with the latest scientific information and technologies (Ratamun and Osman, 2018). Thus, the chemistry curriculum should lay emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and mastery of science process skills through practical learning approaches (Akinola, & Oladejo, 2020; Okebukola, 2016).

Indigenous knowledge refers to the local knowledge that is unique to a given culture and acquired by local people through the accumulation of experiences, informal experiments, and intimate understanding of the environment in a given culture. It encompasses the technology, social, economic and philosophical, learning and governance systems of a community (Chikaire, Osuagwu, Ihenacho, Oguegbuchulam, Ejiogu-Okereke and Obi, 2012).

The absence of scientific knowledge in rural communities created value in the use of indigenous knowledge to meet needs, manage changes in seasons, disaster situations, food security and ultimately in environmental preservation (Siambombe, Mutale and Muzingili, 2018). In Africa, Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) are holistic and produces a deep understanding of the interrelationships among the different elements of a habitat (Eyong, 2007). There is need to rethink development with traditional knowledge so as to build the local indigenous knowledge (Odero, 2011).

For thousands of years, the African indigenous knowledge systems existed and have their own education systems, long before western education was introduced by the European colonialists and missionaries. The introduction of the western educations meant that learners faced the conflicting demands of the new education and those of their home cultures, because the purpose, content, and processes of knowledge transmission conflicts with those of indigenous education (Abah, Mashebe and Denuga, 2015). In the various tribes of the world, there exists indigenous knowledge that can be meaningfully integrated into the western school curricula for improved learning outcome. Additionally, it was argued that education cannot exclude cultural knowledge, since the content of education has societal value underpinning that is associated with a particular culture (Kaino, 2013).

An example of indigenous practice in teaching chemistry concept (nuclear fission; under radioactivity); a case study according to Oladejo (2019) is the cultural practice of using fire to break a substance into pieces. In those days, our forefathers (Africans) use large amount of fire to break up rocks particularly if they are found in places considered to be of need. Bombarding the piece of rock with fire for a period long enough to crack the heavy substance and breaking it into lesser weight that afford them the opportunity to push the piece of rock away and make good use of the space and sometimes the interest might even be to make use of the split rock. This indigenous practice exemplifies the concept of nuclear fission. The importance of indigenous knowledge lies in that it has for a long time been used for survival, including forecasting of hazards by local communities (United Nations, 2015). This shows the extent to which IKS contributes to the sustainability of the environment and community development.

Attempts to improve teachers’ understanding of the nature of science or the nature of IKS without helping them to translate this knowledge into classroom practice have been found to be inadequate (Nichol and Robinson, 2000; Ogunniyi, 2004). Several studies have further shown that the most effective way to get teachers to understand the nature of science is to engage them in long-term mentoring, dialogues and explicitly reflective instructional approaches (Ogunniyi, 2007).

Nigeria is naturally endowed with entrepreneurship opportunities; however, the realization of the full potential of these opportunities has been dampened by the adoption of inappropriate industrialization policies at different times. Several policy interventions that were aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship development via small and medium scale enterprises promotion, based on technology transfer strategy, have failed to achieve the desired goals as it led to the most indigenous entrepreneurs becoming distribution agents of imported products as opposed to building in-country entrepreneurial capacity for manufacturing, mechanized agriculture and expert services (Thaddeus, 2012).

In the beginning, entrepreneurship started when people produced more products than they needed, as such they had to exchange these surpluses. For instance, if a blacksmith produced more hoes than he needed, he exchanges the surplus he had with what he had not but needed; maybe he needed some yams or goat etc. he would look for someone who needed his products to exchange with. By this way, producers came to realize that they can concentrate in their areas of production to produce more and then exchange with what they needed. Thus, through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started. A typical Nigerian entrepreneur is a self-made man who might be said to have strong will to succeed, he might engage the services of others like; friends, mates, in-laws etc. to help him in his work or production. Through this way, Nigerians in the olden days were engaged in entrepreneurship (Adeosun, Oladejo, & Okebukola, 2022; Afoblabi, 2015).

Although Nigeria has been experiencing a reasonably consistent economic growth, the rates of unemployment and inflation have been far greater. This means economic development has not actually been achieved as it were. Because of the lack of data to measure the level of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. However, a critical narrative textual case study, such as one done in this research work can provide a degree of confidence to make a conclusion. The framework and policy for entrepreneurship with consistency is fundamental and enabling infrastructural developments are perquisites for any impactful entrepreneurship development. Until sufficient jobs are created and wealth created, entrepreneurship has a long way to go in Nigeria (Afolabi, 2017).

Several authors have submitted that in order for schools and curricula to positively respond to the need of making teaching and learning more culturally inclusive; there will be a need for a paradigm shift from the current predominantly Euro-centric curricula and school systems of African (Thaman, 2009; Pene, Taufe’ulungaki and Benson, 2002; Johannson-Fua, 2006). However, it was opined that this paradigm shift is a challenge for teachers who are expected to mediate the interface between the different cultural systems of meanings and values that continue to exist in their schools.

Consequently, the learners’ prior knowledge becomes detached from the idea being promoted by the school curriculum and in order to progress with the school system (passing and being promoted to the next class), most African children tend to memorize the theory but lack the application expected to differentiate the educated and non-educated citizens in a society. So, it is important that African education developers evolve strategies such as integrating the indigenous knowledge system in the teaching of sciences which has the potential to make our education culturallyinclusive and make the teaching and learning of science easier for both teachers and the learners (Abah, Mashebe and Denuga, 2015; Ademola et al., 2022a).

Dass and Yager (2009) submitted that teachers need to create a suitable environment by employing strategies that encourage active student participation in identification of issues, concepts and relationships which will be far more effective than the traditional practices whereby students are passive recipients of knowledge with no cognitive involvement in the learning process. Besides, the most important derivatives of learning are knowledge retention and application to real life situations outside the classroom. Cakir (2008) opined that in order to learn a concept meaningfully, students must carry out cognitive processes that construct relations among the elements of information in the concept to promote conceptual learning over rote memorization.

Florence (2012) in her research shared her discovery of chemistry dated back to her childhood and it relates to its use in daily life in the context of indigenous knowledge and its application. Ever since this discovery, chemistry has been her best friend (a much-treasured souvenir) from her early childhood. “Chemistry was not an abstract idea to me, rather a practice, knowledge about doing certain things, skills and attitude that includes observing things and reporting with accuracy what has been seen or felt as applied to real life situations. Doing it right led to earning money! I learned this definition of chemistry through the practices of my late aunt Ruzina, at the ages of 8-10 years before I joined secondary school, where I was formerly introduced to chemistry, consolidated my hands-on experiences and furthering my theoretical knowledge and discoveries in chemistry during my University studies”, thus moving from real life chemistry to the abstract! (Florence, 2012).

One of the broad aims of secondary school education in Nigeria is the raising up of a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under Nigeria’s broad national goals and live as good citizens. (NPE, 2014). The above national goal could be achieved only if chemistry is meaningfully taught in order to ensure continued interest of learners in the subject. Since the knowledge of chemistry is central to vocations and professions in health services, pharmaceuticals, petroleum and petrochemical industries, agriculture, food processing, teaching services and extractive industries (Bamidele et al, 2013), effective teaching and acquisition of lasting knowledge in chemistry will be of high value in the above-mentioned fields of practice and in its long-term productivity for science and technology cum economic growth.

The goal of any teacher is to ensure that students learn and learn meaningfully. The attainment of this goal is pursued through a variety of ways including using pedagogical tools that best suit the context where the curriculum is being delivered (Okebukola, 2020; Oladejo et al., 2021). Another view is that, some students that manage to comprehend (one way or the other) the taught concept(s) tend to forget what they have learnt within a surprisingly short period of time. This shows that even when learning has successfully taken place, students forget probably due to low retentive level or personal negligence or even inability to internalize knowledge. It has been noticed that they also find it difficult to transfer and link or relate knowledge synonymous to other subjects (such as Biology, Physics, Agricultural Science etc) in relation to the concepts learnt in chemistry (Adebayo et al., 2022; Emendu, 2014). Therefore, learning does not end at knowledge comprehension but also a reasonable degree of retention capacity of the acquired knowledge is required for further development of the previous knowledge and learning advancement as the previous knowledge is prerequisite to the new knowledge (Abdulhadi et al., 2022; Dansu, 2017).

Chemistry is an abstract subject for both teachers and students possibly because of the ways it is taught and learnt – not relating it to day to day activities of the learner. This has resulted in students’ poor performance in the subject. The teaching is isolated from indigenous knowledge and practices. This is quite unhelpful to the teaching of chemistry for according to Thornton (2008), chemistry controls the environment. The science of chemistry that is noted as abstract is being practiced with the environmental resources within the context of indigenous knowledge at different levels of human societies across the globe unknowingly. In Nigeria for instance, the concept of saponification is fully practiced in the production of local soap. In the same vein, separation techniques like, sieving, decantation, evaporation, distillation, chromatography among others are also indigenously practiced. These concepts have their origin in many and diverse indigenous knowledge and practices of the people. These and many other chemistry concepts are unknowingly practiced indigenously but in isolation from chemistry as a school science subject. It therefore, becomes imperative to integrate indigenous knowledge and practices of the people in the society into chemistry teaching in order to dispel the notion that the subject is abstract and has no relevance to common daily activities; hence this study (Oladejo et al., 2022; Ugwu and Diovu, 2016).

Dansu (2017) in his experience as a chemistry teacher found that many of his peers in other departments expressed a negative attitude toward chemistry and many thought he was crazy for his choice to teach chemistry. Often times, his peers recalled their chemistry education as being “too hard” and “uninteresting”. Many of the students taught over the years have at first point of contact complained about the subject (on comprehension and retention of the knowledge of chemistry) which is where the teacher often starts his work from by re-orientating them on the dynamism and peculiarity of Chemistry as a subject. This has been the teacher’s observation and experience over the years and it is this concern towards chemistry that motivated this study.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Educational goals have unfortunately shifted from raising up of a generation of people who can think for themselves, solving societal problems and meeting her needs to be relevant or remarkable in ones’ career path to certificate acquisition otherwise known as the Diploma Disease = through the “Academic Miracle Centers” (Adamu, 2020). The order of the day now is to merely pass examination which have made their mode of learning no longer driven by thirst or desire for knowledge but grade driven thus giving forth scientist who cannot even extend their knowledge to manipulating object or materials around them to create or innovate something that can be of use. It is at this present time we have mostly scientists who cannot fix any simple elementary technical issues in their residents, Chemistry students who cannot use their initiative in performing basic separation techniques at home, chemistry students who cannot apply their knowledge of saponification to make soaps and detergent, Chemistry student who cannot improve on their knowledge of Organic chemistry to produce perfumes, body creams of their own from natural extracts of plants and chemicals. This is simply because their learning experience had deficiencies (part of which have been traced to poor knowledge comprehension and retention) (Dansu, 2017).
“If I teach science the way it should be taught many students will fail their SSCE but will end up as great scientists with great skills needed for innovations and discoveries” (Owolabi, 1998).

So much scientists (unemployed and idle graduates) today have nothing doing at least for a living simply because they are void of scientific skills which would have served as their empowerment to be an Entrepreneur and be independent (at least to an extent). According to Owolabi (2020), teaching science the way it should be taught may not suit the desired expectation with which our educational system has been patterned towards, thus may lead to inability to cover the designated syllabus. As such yield average result in external exams (such as WAEC and NECO) but the learners will possess knowledge that cut across all domain of learning and will be innovative solution providers compared to their contemporaries with distinctions in same examination. This have metamorphosised beyond the already existing diploma disease into perpetual re-occurrent examination malpractice, all in the quest to achieve excellent result.

Unarguably, the low or poor exercising of scientific problem-solving skills have not only rendered many financially incapacitated but also in turn stagnated the economic growth of the nation making virtually all the inhabitants to be solely dependent on imported goods and foreign services when there are more than enough to be explored of the natural endowments of the country, Nigeria that can be utilized in creating and innovating to meet the people’s and societal needs. Therefore, this study has been set up to break the barriers to learning chemistry concepts leading to the development of entrepreneurship skills, exploration of indigenous knowledge system and practices to meet needs through creativity and innovations upon IKS and thus boosting production as well as the nation’s Gross Domestic Profit (GDP).


1.3 Objectives of Study

The core objectives of this study are to;

  1. Investigate the efficacy of Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices (IKSP) teaching approach on the learning outcomes of senior secondary school students in chemistry;
  2. Determine the relative effectiveness of indigenous knowledge system and Practices (IKSP) teaching approach and the conventional method on learning outcomes of senior secondary school students in chemistry; and
  3. Investigate the interaction effect of gender within treatments, on students’ comprehension and entrepreneurial skill of Senior Secondary School students in Chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research questions answered through the findings of this study:

  1. Is there any statistical difference in the comprehension of secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach and those taught using the conventional lecture method?
  2. Is there any statistical difference in the entrepreneurial skills of secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach and those taught using the conventional lecture method?
  3. Is there any statistical difference in the comprehension of male and female secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach?
  4. Is there any statistical difference between the entrepreneurial skills of male and female secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach?
  5. Is there any statistical difference in the performance of students’ entrepreneurial skill assessment between those who engage in artisanship after school hours and those who do not within the IKSP group?
  6. What perception do secondary school students hold about the use of IKSP in teaching and learning of chemistry concepts?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05level of significance:

  • Ho1 There is no statistically significant difference in the comprehension of secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach and those taught using the conventional lecture method
  • Ho2 There is no statistically significant difference in the entrepreneurial skills of secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach and those taught using the conventional lecture method.
  • Ho3 There is no statistically significant difference in the comprehension of male and female secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach.
  • Ho4 There is no statistically significant difference between the entrepreneurial skills of male
    and female secondary school students taught chemistry using the indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) approach.
  • Ho5 There is no statistically significant difference in the performance of students’ entrepreneurial skill assessment between those who engage in artisanship after school hours and those who do not within the IKSP group.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study to existing knowledge are the below stated points at the successful completion of this study.

  1. The study challenged students’ sense of creativity as well as their problem-solving skills thus prompting them to maximize their application of scientific knowledge.
  2. It made learning of science Transformative and Innovative.
  3. Exploration of students’ manipulative skills to develop Entrepreneurial skills in such students through hands-on engagement experience thereby making the students less dependent by the virtue of the entrepreneurial empowerment from the learnt chemistry concepts.
  4. Stimulate students’ interest in learning Chemistry and its comprehension by making the learning process fun and do-able.
  5. Make learning STEM (chemistry concepts) fun through the use of indigenous practices inclusive approach that will make the subject matter real to learners and less abstract
  6. Reveal the realistic and industrious aspect of chemistry to learners and at the same time help in eradicating the abstract mind perspective in students and the society at large.
  7. This study built learners’ knowledge for creativity and innovation.
  8. It improved and increased production rate of young scientists so as to boost technology and the economy of the nation.
  9. The successful accomplishment of this study broke barriers to learning (comprehension, and entrepreneurial skill)
  10. Finally, it established innovative methods of learning Chemistry concepts using indigenous knowledge system and practices IKSP as a means to an end.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The following are the challenges faced during the course of this research:

  1. Delay of approval for access to the needed students in selected schools due to students’ unavailability in school as a result of COVID-19 pandemic breakout.
  2. Delay in the execution of the administration of the test experiment and the treatment due to the staggered mode of attendance of students in schools as a result of COVID-19.

The following were the devised solution on the envisaged limitations:

  1. In a case where COVID-19 delay beyond expectation in gaining access to students, an online teaching platform was set up and utilized by the researcher in engaging students for the administration of teaching and treatment so as not to render the study delayed or unachievable. To this end IT experts was consulted on the setup of moodle and server to be employed for the progress of the study.
  2. In a case of denied access, the researcher selected and approached another set of schools (that matches the required specification for this study) in replacement for the one where access have been denied.

In this study, the design of the IKSP teaching approach which the treatment in this study has social and cultural interaction embedded in its design. According to the first step in IKSP where students are instructed to go home to construct knowledge from social interaction with their environment as well as their culture by seeking cultural knowledge and practices related to the chemistry concept to be taught from their parents or any elderly person around, prior to the lesson. This is in tune with vygotsky’s social constructivism theory that sociocultural interaction plays fundamental role in cognition development.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined based on their respective operational usage within the context of this study.

Indigenous Knowledge System / Practices (IKSP):

Refers to thoughts and beliefs existing among the local people to which value is attached and transcended along the lines of descent as being meaningful and correct in a particular locality. The context of this study is particular about those indigenous practices that shares the same outcome or result with certain Chemistry concepts and that students must have been familiar with from their locality.

Comprehension:

This is simply the ability to make a meaning from what have been taught/learnt. It is also the act of understanding and interpretation of a learnt concept. As a proof of the fact that learning have actually taken place, Learners (Students) must not only be able to replicate what they have been taught but also be able to express themselves on that which they have learnt from, the understanding they have in the learnt Chemistry concept and also give relevant example(s) where and when necessary.

Retention:

Is defined as the ability to recall what have been learnt after a period of time that learning has taken place. It is also the continued existence or possession of something (particularly knowledge or information within one’s memory). When there is a real (full) grasp of (on) knowledge by learners, the existence of the acquired knowledge should not be temporal (except in a case of evolution of new or modified knowledge on the concerned concept). There must be a residual knowledge no matter how long it might have been.

Creativity:

This can be defined as the art of coming up with new ideas, new approaches, new ways of doing old things i.e doing a common thing in an uncommon way. It can also be described as new application or a combination of series of existing knowledge. Creativity entails critical reasoning over a problem, putting together viable ideas so as to proffer solution to the problem in a unique way. In some instances, it involves innovation i.e improving on already existing knowledge or ideas.

Innovation:

It is the act and art of introducing something new simply by creatively improving on existing ideas, knowledge or solution(s). Innovation can be brought to play by merging of two or more working ideas or by the modification of previous ideas or already existing knowledge in a bid to solve a particular or set of problem(s). It is the means by which the entrepreneurs either create new wealth-producing resources with enhanced potential for creating wealth.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Discussion of Findings

…available in the complete material


5.2 Recommendation

In view of the various findings, the following are the recommendations from this research study;

  1. Teachers should adopt the IKSP approach in teaching chemistry concepts and even other subjects at all level of education so as to incorporate individual culture into learning
  2. Teachers need try out IKSP approach to boost the rate at which learners comprehend chemistry concepts as well as how much knowledge they can possibly comprehend through it
  3. Breaking barriers mitigating against meaningful learning requires engaging learners’ interest so as to drive their curiosity to learn chemistry concepts (and beyond chemistry to other subjects) which already is embedded within IKSP approach and should be taken advantage of by teachers
  4. Learners’ awareness of their cultural practices can be reawakened and their indigenous knowledge harnessed with modern scientific knowledge through the help of IKSP approach so as to solve their own problems or meet their societal needs
  5. Wealth creation through entrepreneurial skill empowerment can also be achieved with IKSP as a tool for equipping learners with requisite knowledge and skills needed for meeting their societal needs and at the end make profit
  6. Teachers should explore IKSP approach to build problem-solving scientists that will develop the nation’s science and technology so as to minimize western dependence and in the same vein boost economical independence.

5.3 Conclusion

Within its limitations, the study tentatively concluded that teaching students using IKSP approach enhances knowledge comprehension as well as entrepreneurial skill acquisition thus building scientists that are problem solving oriented and not scholars with diploma disease. Also this study posits that the use of IKSP is not gender specific or bias i.e it does not impart the male and female gender differently thus, learners stands equal chance of learning and skill acquisition under the deployment of IKSP approach. To this end, IKSP’s efficacy in establishing meaningful learning have been revealed through the findings of this study and its potency for comprehension as well as entrepreneurial skill acquisition have also been established to raise scientists capable of transferring their knowledge (both indigenous and modern) into application through acquired skills to solve problem(s), meet their own personal needs as well as the societal need(s).


5.4 Suggestion on Further Studies

Based on the success of this research study further research can be carried out using indigenous knowledge system and practices (IKSP) to further examine problems faced by students in comprehension, entrepreneurial skill acquisition and retention. Further studies should be aimed at exploring the impact of IKSP on Students’ learning interest and retention, critical thinking and innovation in Chemistry (difficult concepts) and further more into other subjects. This will go a long way in showing if IKSP is a potent teaching approach in developing and boosting beyond students’ comprehension and retention, the ability to create, innovate and recreate. It will also revolutionize students’ academic performance positively particularly in comprehending concepts perceived to be difficult.


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