Investigation Into The Causes Of Blocked Drainage, Canal And Culvert In Ilorin-West Local Government Area (A Case Studies Of Agbo-Oba, Oja-Tuntun And Sawmill)
Drainage is an essential component of road construction. In most designs of the road, the first thing to be put in place is drainage system. The presence of blockage in drainage system tends to reduce the carriage capacity of drainage and thereby affect life span of the road. The research employed a research survey in order to obtain the information that would describe the causes of blocked drainage, canal and culvert in Ilorin-west local government road and its effect on the surrounding environment and the road users. Data collection techniques used includes questionnaires, photographs and observation.
The results show that Ilorin-west local government road drainage system was not adequate to satisfactorily drain the runoffs due to the blockage caused by debris, illegal dumping of refuse, Non-channelization e.t.c. As a result, the surrounding environment was greatly affected by washing away some sections of the road and bridges, creation of gullies on land, washing away of the fertility of the land.
The drainage facilities could be improved by frequent inspections, maintenance of gabions built for remedying of gullies and construction of water conservation structures e.g. water pans to hold and reduce the speed of water. Some drainage, canal and culvert system on Ilorin-west local government road should be redesign.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- Appendix (List of plates)
- 1.1 Statement of the problem
- 1.2 Aim and objectives
- 1.3 Justification
- 1.4 scope of the study
- 1.5 Description of the project area
- 1.6 Research methodology
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Blockage Issues
- 2.3 Types of Debris
- 2.3.1 Overview
- 2.3.2 Floating Debris
- 2.3.3 Non-Floating Debris
- 2.3.4 Urban Debris
- 2.4 Types of Structures and Drainage Systems
- 2.5 Causes of Blockage
- 2.5.1 Overview
- 2.5.2 Modes of blockage
- 2.6 Impacts of Blockage
- 2.6.1 Overview
- 2.6.2 Hydraulic Impacts
- 2.6.3 Economic Impacts
- 2.6.4 Social Impacts
- 2.6.5 Environmental Impacts
- 2.7 Effect of Blockage
- 2.7.1 Overview
- 2.7.2 Consequences of blockages on flooding
- 2.8 Control Measure
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.2.1 Population
- 3.3 Data Collection Procedures
- 3.3.1 Data collection instructions
- 3.3.2 Primary data
- 3.3.3 Secondary data
- 3.4 Data Analysis and Presentation Techniques
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis of Result
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Results from Questionnaire
- 4.2.1 Results from Questionnaire Type One
- 4.2.2 Results from Questionnaire Type Two
- 4.3 Possible Causes of the Blockage
- 4.4 Results on Control of Blocked Drainage, Canal and Study Area
5.0 Conclusions and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
List of Tables
- 4.1 Response rate in rate in Agbo-Oba, Oja-Tuntun and Sawmill
- 4.2 Number of years spent by the respondent rate in Agbo-Oba, Oja-Tuntun and Sawmill
- 4.3 Possible causes of the blockage in Agbo-Oba, Oja-Tuntun and Sawmill
- 4.4 Control of blocked drainage, canal and culvert
List of Figures
- 4.1 Consideration for hydraulic design
- 4.2 Years spent by the respondent
- 4.3 Frequency of road usage by road users
- 4.4 The possible cause of the blockage
- 4.5 Control measure in Agbo-Oba, Oja-Tuntun and Sawmill
Appendixs (List Of Plates)
- 1.0 Drainage blockage along Agbo-Oba road 54
- 2.0 Drainage blockage along Sawmill road 56
- 3.0 Drainage blockage along Oja-Tuntun, kuntu area 57
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. At the census of November 1991, Nigeria had 88, 514,501 with an inhabitants and a population density of 95.8 per 59 km.
The average annual growth rate between 1963 and 1991 is 1.7% (Baiye E; 1991). According to 2006 census figure, Nigeria had a population of 140 million people. The major hazard experienced in Nigeria includes flooding, erosion, deforestation, land degradation and climatic drought.
Flooding in Kwara state has been due to natural or artificial occurrences of blocked drainage, canal and culvert due to solid waste, wash away of the top soil, debris like trees, and leaves present in the water channel. Flooding has been experienced in different part of the state especially in Ilorin west local government area of the state, which has claimed life, damaged properties of the people that reside in the geographical area and as well as damaged the road pavement to greater extent.
Drainage is the process of removal of surface or subsurface face by water from a given area by natural or artificial means. (Adeyemi, 2005). The term is commonly applied to the removal of excess water by canals, drains, ditches, culverts and other structure designed to collect and transport water earlier by gravity or by pumping. A drainage project may involve large scale reclamation and protection of marshes, underwater lands or lands subject to frequent flooding (Microsoft- Encarta 2009).
Canal is an artificial waterway for navigation and irrigation, etc. it is a long narrow arm of the water penetrating an inland. Canals are man-made channel for water conveyance (Supply), or to services water transport vehicles. A true canal is a channel that cuts across drainage, making a navigable channel connecting two different drainage basins. Most commercially important canal of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each using rivers in long stretches and divide crossing canal in others. This is true for many canals still in use (Donald Lang mead, 2013).
A culvert is a conduit used as an artificial channel under a road way or embankment to maintain flow from natural channel or drainage ditch (Oshunkey, F.E (1992). A properly design culvert will carry the flow without causing damaging, backwater, excessive construction or excessive outlet velocities. Culverts usually have span less than 6m per cell (\www. Acclimated.com), (Albert transportation (2004)).
Blocked drainage, canal and culvert are caused as a result of high population of people living in a geographical area without the proper management of waste disposal, falling trees. Virtually every Nigerian is vulnerable to flooding either by natural or artificial.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Ilorin-west local government area has been experiencing severe blocked drainage, canals and culvert over the years, which has makes life very hard for the residential in the area and result to loss of life and property.
It has rendered some people homeless and jobless; it is dangerous for the possibilities of infliction by diseases such as cholera, typhoid, fever, malaria etc. as a result of enhancing stagnant water. It also forces many occupants to relocate due to air pollution and others factor causes by blocked drainages, canal and culverts
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project
The aim of this project work is to investigate into the causes of blocked drainage, canal and culvert in Ilorin-west local government area of Kwara state in Nigeria.
- To look into the factor that causes blocked drainage canal and culvert.
- To find out the hazards which blocked drainage canal and culvert causes to human environment.
- To find out the various control measures needed to bring blocked drainage under control.
- To suggest a proper drainage, canal and culvert management.
The construction of drainage, canal and culvert in the country is given much of structural or engineering consideration with little or no environmental impact assessment of the operations after the design and construction. The environmental problem results from operation which are usually devastating.
Hence, this study significantly addresses the following issues.
- Identify the environmental hazards associated with the drainage, canal and culvert.
- Evaluate the magnitude or significance of the hazard and effect.
- Identify changes in downstream hydrology.
- Identify changes in downstream morphology caused by altering the flow pattern.
- Examine control techniques to eliminates or lesson the severity of the effect and to manage the hazards.
- Develops plan and procedures to manage the environmental changes due to the operation of the drainage, canal and culvert.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This project focus on the investigation into the causes of blocked drainage, canal and culvert; its effect and the possible control measure within Ilorin-west local government area in Ilorin.
The investigation covered the basic hazard which may be caused by blocked drainage, canal and culvert to the human environment and to look into the causes in the place it happens within Ilorin-west local government. Investigating the various control measure needed to bring blocked drainage, canal and culvert under control.
1.5 Description of the Project Area
Ilorin west is one of the sixteen (16) local government in Kwara state and also one of the five (5) local government that made up Kwara central popularly known as (Emirate) with its headquarters located/ situated in Wara Osin in Ilorin metropolis, this capital of Kwara state. A case study of Agbo-oba, oja-tuntun and Sawmill was assigned.
1.6 Research Methodology
The methodology employed are:- preliminary data source, which may include:-
A. Reconnaissance Surveys
This is the feasibility study of the area to determine the Feeder Rivers, geology of the area and level of deterioration of building causes by flood as a result of blocked drainage, canal and culvert and also investigation into the cause of the blockage and also know the control measure to be used or adopted.
B. Oral Interview
Oral interview was conducted to hear the view of the residents on the causes of blocked drainage, canal and culvert and to determine the control measure of the blocked drainage, canal and culvert in other to suggest the best control measures.
C. Administration Of Questionnaire
Questionnaires was distributed for analysis
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
The level of awareness of waste collection services and waste management regulations were relatively low in Abgo-oba, Oja-tuntun and Sawmil, the percentage of those who use indiscriminate solid waste disposal methods like open dumping, open burning and dumping in drainages, canal and culvert were higher. Educational status, age, gender, cost of waste collection services and the location of resident among others were the factors influencing quantity of waste generated and disposal method in Agbo-oba, Oja-tuntun and Sawmil in Ilorin west local government area.
Base on the fact collected from engineers’; these indicated that the drainage system provided for some area in Ilorin-west local government road was inadequate and therefore inappropriate. The magnitude of the water from the surrounding area in which the road is situated was overlooked during design. They also indicated that studies that were carried out before designing the road were not sufficient to satisfactorily ascertain the amount of water that would cross the road at a point in time and therefore the design lacked capacity to adequately drain the runoffs which hindered debris causing the drainage, canal and culvert to block during the storm. However, poor workmanship (seen through poorly worked stone pitching, embankment, non channelized drainage and gabions) by the contractor during construction and poor maintenance also contributed to the drainage problems in Ilorin west local government drainage, canal and culvert system.
A significant proportion of the respondents living in the area or either uses the road every day or twice a week, shows that 20% 0f the respondents claimed that blockage in drainage are caused by lack of inadequate drainage, 40% of respondents claimed that blockage are caused by illegal dumping of refuses along the line of drain which is the principal causes of flooding, 20% of respondents claimed that blocked is caused by illegal structure, 10% of respondents claimed that blockage is caused by non-channelization.
Furthermore, the highest percentage of causes of blocked drainage, canal and culvert in Agbo-oba, Oja-tuntun and Sawmil in Ilorin west local government area were caused by illegal dumping of refuse into the drainage channel such as; food waste, paper and carton waste, nylon and polythene waste, fruit and vegetable waste, tin and can waste e.t.c
This study can serve as reference for controlling blocked drainage, canal and culvert problems.
The following are the recommendations
- Improvement of drainage facilities through maintenance
- Public awareness campaign.
- Frequent inspections to check faults that may occur
- Encouraging better pastoral cultivation to check erosion
- Constructing soil and water conservation structures including water pans
- Continuous monitoring of rainfall in the area through establishment of rainfall observation stations.
- Carrying out environmental programme at least once in a month.
- Creating possible alternative routes for use in the case the road is threatened
- Redesigning the affected drainage, canal and culvert system
- Complete overhaul and reconstruction of the whole system
- Proper and frequent maintenance of the drainage facilities.
- Provision of dumping site.
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