An Investigation Of The Attitudes Of Parents And Teachers To The Schooling Experience Of Physically Challenged Students (A Study Of Selected Schools In Kosefe LGA Of Lagos State)

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An Investigation Of The Attitudes Of Parents And Teachers To The Schooling Experience Of Physically Challenged Students (A Study Of Selected Schools In Kosefe LGA Of Lagos State)


Abstract


This research, is concern with the examination of parental attitudes towards the education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe local government of Lagos state.

A physically challenged child may be defined as a child who has disability of locomotors or neurological origin which constitutes disadvantages or restrictions in one or more aspect of daily living activities. It may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory and emotional type. The disability may be congenital or acquired. Oxford dictionary defined disabled as people with permanent illness or injury that makes it difficult for them to use part of their body completely or easily. Also, Child Right Act Law (2006) defines a child as person who has not attained the aged of eighteen (18) years. Therefore, the physically challenged children are under age that need to be nurtured and assisted to overcome physically, emotional and mental challenges to developed into responsible adults. The researchers decided to use descriptive research design to asses the parental attitudes towards the education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe.

The researchers found out that, the physically challenged children are being marginalized and discriminated in the society, denying their right to education. Majority of the parents developed negative attitudes towards the education of the physically challenged children and most of the physically challenged children do not received education. Consequently, majority of them end up in begging or stay in their homes useless. As a result the concerned children suffer lack of acceptance, discrimination, social marginalization etc. which highly affect their future lives.

Based on this, as a students of education we realized that it is necessary to make a research on this issue particularly in Kosefe, for the purposed of given concrete information that will lead to developing positive attitudes of parents towards the education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe local government and society at large.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

It is an established fact that the importance of education to the development of any society cannot be over emphasized. The development of any society depends heavily on its level of education. According to Adelowo (2006) Education is the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or a young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives. Dewey (2006) maintains that, education is wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life.

Similarly, Adedoja (2005) maintains that, education is the training of the entire person to enable him not only to be able to read and write or proficient in a given job, but also to enable him to fit himself for living in a society. Ahmad (2008) education is the process by which an individual born into a human society, learn the ways of life, which include knowledge, skills and values of the society, at home community and schools, so that he can function effectively as a member of the given society (Abosi, 2007).

In view of the above, it is therefore necessary to provide education for every member of the society regardless of any difference in order to achieve maximum development. In an attempt to provide education for all, the United Nations through the United National Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNICEF), United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNESCO) and other agencies are making efforts to make sure that all children received necessary education that will make them responsible members of the society. Government of different countries, non-governmental organizations are also making effort in this regard. Each country has its own policies and programmes that are concerned with the provision of sound education for all the citizens.

In Nigeria, the past and present government made programme with the aim of making sure that all Nigerians receive education. For example, the government introduced Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme in 1970s which aimed at providing free education for every Nigerian child. The programme helps a lot in this regard. Presently, we have Universal Basic Education (UBE) which replaced the UPE. The programme is an educational programme of the federal republic of Nigeria which aimed at providing free, universal and compulsory basic education for all child aged 6-15 years. The programme was conceived during the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo and launched on 30th September, 1999. It is meant for all Nigerians including the rich, poor, physically fit and challenged, brilliant, the dull etc. Through this programme, different schools were established to cater for the physically challenged children and sometimes they are integrated with normal children in the same school set up to receive education.

Despite the efforts to provide education of the physically challenged children like other normal children, they are still facing a lot of challenges due to parental attitudes towards them. These negative attitudes to the physically challenged children begin from the homes where their parents see them as a shame and thus, there is no need for them to acquire education consequently, majority of them end up in begging or stay in their homes useless. Most of the physically challenged children do not receive education. International statistics of the Convention of the Right of the Child (CRC) (2006) point that only 2% of the disabled children enjoy the privilege of going to school. This is a serious violation of Convention of the Right of the Child (CRC) which guarantees the right of every child’s going to school. Based on this, as students of education, we realized that it is necessary to make a research on this aspect in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state in order to make parent change their attitudes to good towards the education of the physically challenged children in the society for better development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the efforts made by government and other agencies in order to make sure that all children receive qualitative education that will make them responsible members of the society, it has been realized that the majority of the parents developed negative attitudes of discrimination and marginalization towards the education of their physically challenged children in Nigeria including Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state. Most of the parents see disabled children as shameful creatures that are destined for doom. As a result, the concerned children suffer lack of acceptance, lack of recognition, social marginalization etc. which highly affect their future lives. Consequently, most of them roam the streets for alms or used to beg for alms instead of going to school to received education. As contrast to the provision of the National Policy on Education NPE (2012) which provided that every child have the right to education regardless of any difference. It is therefore necessary to make a research on this issue for the purpose of given concrete information that will lead to developing positive attitudes of parents towards education of the physically challenged children of Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state.


1.3 Objective of the Study

This research project is designed to achieved the following objectives:

  1. To examine the role of parents in providing education for the physically challenged children in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state.
  2. To identify the types of physical challenges children are having in Kosefe local government of Lagos state.
  3. To find out the types of negative attitudes developed by parents and community members on physically challenged children towards their education.
  4. To find out the social problems/challenged of education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state.

1.4 Research Question

This research project is designed to answer the following research question:

  1. What are the role of parents in providing education for the physically challenged children in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state?
  2. What types of physical challenges children are having in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state?
  3. What types of negative attitudes are developed by parents and community members on physically challenge children towards their education?
  4. What are the social problem/challenged of the physically challenged children in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research is concern with the investigation of parents’ attitudes towards the education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe local government of Lagos state.

The findings would make the parents of the physically challenge children to be aware of the importance of education and give their children necessary assistance towards being educated.

This would provide information to the teachers about the nature of the physically challenged children and how to educate them effectively by applying various method of instruction.

It would also benefit the students and other researchers in the course of further researches as a reference material, by providing information concerning attitudes of parents towards the education of their physically challenged children

Other stakeholders are also not left behind on this research as it help them in necessary decision making that will improved the education of physically challenged children in Kosefe local government of Lagos state and the society at large.

It would also help the government to increase appropriate provision for the education of the physically challenge children in Nigeria including Kosefe local government of Lagos state. For example, more special schools need to be establish as well as trained and special teachers need to be employed.

By and large, the finding would provide information to the community that would expand the body of knowledge. And help with creative information on how to tackle the problems being face by the physically challenged children in terms of education.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This research is concern with the examination of the attitudes of parents towards the education of the physically challenged children in Kosefe Local Government of Lagos state.

Kosefe local government consists ten areas/wards, but due to the financial and time constraints, the researchers would not be able to cover all the areas of the Kosefe Local Government. Therefore, they decided to limit themselves to some selected areas to represent the entire population.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Balance Diet:

It is the diet that contains the six class of food taken in a right proportion.

Unbalance diet:

It is the diet that those not contains the six classes of food.

WHO:

World Health Organization

Poor Nutrition:

The deficiency intake of food nutrient by the body.

Nutrition:

The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth

Physically Challenged:

Lack of adequate strength or physical or mental ability


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations based on the data collected, interpreted and analysed for the purpose of investigating the attitudes of parents towards the education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state.


5.2 Conclusion

From the findings in this research through the administration of questionnaires, interview and observation it has been discovered that none of the parents of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state was happy about his child’s physical disability. The research also found out that majority of the parents could not take their children to school either for poverty, negligence or ignorance of the importance of education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state.

It has also been discovered in this research that only few parents of the physically challenged children have received contributions from government, non-governmental organizations or philanthropists to educate their physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state. The research further confirmed that the lagos state government concern and contribution to the education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state was not enough to cater for the their needs

Moreover, it has been discovered in the findings of the research that the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state do not receive the same treatment with normal children from their home, community and even in their school as they were been marginalized and look down upon. The findings from the interview with the stakeholders show that if the physically challenged children were given enough opportunity to be educated, they will contribute greatly to the development of kosefe local government and the society at large.

The finding also revealed that the importance of the education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state and the larger society cannot be overemphasized. It has also been discovered that if they were given the some opportunity to education as their normal children counter parts, the society would achieve political, economic, social and technological developments.

In view of this, the result from the analysis of the research questions (stated in chapter one) of this study revealed the following:

  1. The study revealed that the parents of the physically challenged children are the central figures in the education of their children. They should provide equal opportunity for their physically challenged children with their normal children. It has also been revealed that the government efforts were not enough and thus, the lagos state government should provide free education for the physically challenged children in kosefe local government and the state at large.
  2. The physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state were unprotected and exposed to abuse, discrimination, ignored, stigmatized and exploited by families and society because most of the families see them as shameful creatures that are destined for doom. Consequently, most of them roam the streets for alms or used to beg for alms instead of going to school to receive education.
  3. It has also been discovered in the findings that the physically challenge children are facing the problems of discrimination and lack of recognition in their families, schools and the society which affected their lives especially in terms of education. it was discovered that the problem could be solved if the physically challenged children are given their rights according to the provision of Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989 and African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) in 1999 as well as the provision of other bodies about the rights of the physically as requires to education.
  4. The study also revealed that majority of the physically challenged children are from poor families who could not afford to take care of their children’s necessary needs especially education. it has also been examined that majority of the physical disability of the children in kosefe local government of lagos state were deafness and blindness that are caused by sickness, genetic problems, malnutrition and accident.

5.3 Recommendations

The following are some of our recommendations concerning investigating the attitudes of parents towards the education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state based on the findings of this research:

  1. The education of the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state requires all major stake holders such as government, individuals, corporate bodies, civil society organization, NGOs and the media to make concerted efforts to drum up support for the education of the physically challenged children. This will help them to live equal and protected life just like other members of the society as entrenched in Nigerian constitution and various international conventions which the country is a signatory to.
  2. Parents should not discriminate against their physically challenged children but love them and give them necessary care because if the parents do not give love and care to them, it can expose them to evil.
  3. The parents of the physically challenged children should not be ashamed of having such children because, God, the Almighty gave them to you, so love them and gave them necessary care and education in order to fulfill your parental responsibility and make them responsible members of the society.
  4. The government should make a law against any maltreatment and discrimination of the physically challenged children and anybody who maltreated such children must be seriously punished in accordance with the law.
  5. The education of the physically challenged children in Nigeria including kosefe local government of lagos state should be made free at all levels of education and allowances should be given to them at regular intervals. This would encourage them and their parents towards their education.
  6. There is strong need to provide special schools and training centers for the physically challenged children in kosefe local government of lagos state and the country at large. Materials should also be provided in abundance for the education of the children in accordance with their various kinds of disabilities.
  7. It should be made compulsory that every parent must take his physically challenged child to school and any child of school age who is seen outside street begging, his parents must be summoned before the law.
  8. The physically challenged children themselves should be hardworking and beer in mind that disability should not prevent them from achieving their aim with a view to make their parents and the society proud.

An Investigation Of The Attitudes Of Parents And Teachers To The Schooling Experience Of Physically Challenged Students (A Study Of Selected Schools In Kosefe LGA Of Lagos State)


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