Investigating The Presence Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli In Dairy Products

Project and Seminar Material for Pharmaceutical Science

Investigating The Presence Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli In Dairy Products


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Dairy products are various products derived from cow’s milk or that of other female mammals such as goat, sheep, yaks, horses, camel. Dairy products include yoghurt, nono (fermented cow’s milk, madara (unfermented cow’s milk, cheese, whey, condensed and evaporated milk.) (cultureforhealth, 2015).

Yoghurt, nono, Madara has become so highly valued in humans diet because of their nutritional values and their culinary possibilities (George and pamplon, 2006) Yoghurt is made by controlled thermoduric fermentation of pasteurized non-fat or low fat milk carried out around 45% (Prescott et al., 2005) . It is probably the most popular fermented milk in Nigeria. Yoghurt is a foods produced by bacterial fermentation of milk and these bacteria are known as “yoghurt cultures. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk and protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic tang. Also yoghurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture) usually Streptococcus thermopiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into milk, after inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46% (105 to 115%) until fermentation, the milk is coagulated by bacteria to produce lactic acid (serre et al., 2009)

Nono is an opaque white to milky coloured, liquid food drink gotten from fermented raw cow milk made locally (Godwin and Emmanuel, 2013). It is widely consumed in many African countries including Nigeria. Nono is of two types such as kindirimo and sallah though the nono is mostly termed kindirimo. Mostly the Fulani’s produce milk locally in Nigeria and the excess of the milk is processed into these products for preservation and use (Akinyele, et al., 1999). Also kindirimo is produced locally by pasteurized cow milk which are prepared by heating to boiling and then allowed to cool at 37c and the milk butter from the previous day is added to it at the rate of 0.5-1% of the amount of milk to be processed and then left overnight to become sour until it coagulate (Odunfa, et al., 1988)

Madara is the unfermented raw milk collected from cow’s under while nono is product form raw Milk collected from cow’s udder into a container called calabash and allowed to ferment naturally for 24hours. Nono is also more popular in term of public consumption than madara, this is because madara is rarely sold to public for direct consumption as compared to nono. Madara is produced in homes especially in villages where producers are ignorant of shelf-life and safety standards of the products nono is sold to both rural and urban dwellers as food (Uzeh, et al. 2006).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Milk is a highly nutritious food that serves as an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganism. Milk and its’ derivatives are considered vehicle of Staphylococcus aureus for human infections and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The microbiological quality of milk and dairy products is influenced by the initial flora of raw milk, the processing conditions and post –heat treatment contamination. Undesirable microbes can cause spoilage of dairy products including Gram-negative psychrotrophs, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Of concern to public health is the contamination of these dairy products by enterotoxigenic strains of staphylococcus aureus and strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in these dairy products. For this purpose emphasis will be laid on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli contamination in some diary product and to provide safety measure as a result of poor hygiene practiced by handlers of these products. There is a misnomer in the condition surrounding the sale of some dairy products such as yoghurt, Nono, madara in Makurdi Metropolis. Vendors carry the products from manufacturers without making provision for maintenances of appropriate temperature and sanitary control. This predisposes these products to post production contamination which poses danger to public health.


1.3 Justification of the Study

Since dairy products are widely consumed as food, this study will help to establish contamination by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, mode of contamination and thus aid in determining their safety for consumption. The result of this study will also help in providing information on these products by the producers, which will promote healthier handling of the product by the producers, the sellers and the consumers. It will also reveal the health implication of their consumption, since they are very delicious and nutritious drink.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

Aim

Investigating the presence of staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli in dairy products.

Objectives
  1. To isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli present in Yoghurt, Nono and Madara.
  2. To determine the most predominant of the above mentioned organisms in Yoghut, Nono and Madara.
  3. To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the above isolated organisms.

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The presence of Staphylococcus aureus is in line with the results of Okpalugo et al., (2008) and Okonkwo (2011) and Soormo et al (2011). Staphylococcus aureus has been linked to gastroenteritis by producing enterotoxins, skin infections and boils. In as much as Staphylococcus aureus is highly vulnerable to destruction by heat treatment and nearly all sterilizing agents, its presence in pasteurized yoghurt is an indication of poor sanitation or post-pasteurization contamination (Okpalugo et al., 2008).

Result also shows that Staphylococcus aureus in milk product is an agent for the cause of mastitis in dairy cattle (animals) and may have contaminated milk from udder of infected animals.

Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated are comparable with that of Ifeanyi et al., (2013), which the result obtained for highest mean heterotrophic bacteria count with a value of 6.1 x 105 cfu/ml to 4.8×105 and not in agreement with that obtained by Rodriques et al .,2010 which is 107cfu/ml and results obtained from this studies shows the highest mean count of 5.6 x 105 for dairy products analyzed.

The results obtained for the percentage of Escherichia coli was higher than that obtained from staphylococcus aureus which is also contrasted to that of Okonkwo,( 2011), Somro et al.,( 2002). Which had 60% of Escherichia coli
Adeleke et a.,l (2000) and Mahami et a.,l (2011) also found that pasteurized milk and cow milk respectively in Nigeria are contaminated with Escherichia coli.

(Okpalugo et al., 2008; Dadie et al., 2010). Also linked the presence of Escherichia coli as an organism indicative of other pathogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus. Recovery and counting of Escherichia coli is used as liable indicator of fecal coliform and indicate a possible presence of enteropathoganic and/or toxigenic microorganism which constitute a public health hazard (Asmahan and Wada, 2011).

Most Escherichia coli are harmless but some are known to be pathogenic bacteria causing severe intestinal disease in man ( Asmahan and Wada, 2011). Hygiene, farm size, number of animals, geographic location are major factors that shows that milk can be a major source of foodborne pathogens to human health. Also introduction of raw milk contaminated with food borne pathogens into processing plants and their persistence in biofilm represent an important risk of post-pasteurization contamination that could lead to exposure of the consumer to pathogenic bacteria (Arizcun et al., 1998; Roberts and Weidmann, 2003; Wongi 1998).

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample A (nono) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R but was resistant to APX, Z, AM as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample B (nono) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, APX, Z, and AM but resistant to none as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample C (nono) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, APX, and resistant to Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample D (nono) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, APX, and resistant to E, Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample E (nono) from Wurukum was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, APX, and resistant to Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample F (nono) from Wurukum was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, APX, and resistant to Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample G (Almadina yoghurt) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, but resistant to APX, Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample H (Topsun yoghurt) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, but resistant to APX, Z and AM, as shown in table 5a.

Staphylococcus aureus was not isolated from sample I (Tito yoghurt) from Wadata.

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample J (Final farm fresh yoghurt) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, APX, CPX, S, R, but resistant to Z and AM, as shown in table 5a

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sample K (Madara) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, E, PEF, CN, CPX, S, R, but resistant to APX, Z and AM, as shown in table 5a

Escherichia coli isolated from sample A (nono) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample B (nono) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, AM, AU, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to CN, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample C (nono) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample D (nono) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, AU, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample E (nono) from Wurukum was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, AM, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample F (nono) from Wurukum was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, AM, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample G (Almadina Yohurt) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample H (Topsun Yohurt) from Northbank was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, AU, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli was not isolated from sample I (Tito yoghurt) from Wadata.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample J (Final farm fresh Yohurt) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, AU, as shown in table 5b.

Escherichia coli isolated from sample K (Madara) from Wadata was sensitive to the antibiotic SXT, CH, SP, CPX, CN, PEF, OFX, S but was resistant to AM, AU, as shown in table 5b.

The result from this work has shown that Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were found in all the samples collected except sample I (Tito yoghurt).

However, the predominant organism isolated was Escherichia coli.

Sample B (nono) which was obtained from Northbank in Makurdi Metropolis had the highest contamination of bacterium ( Escherichia coli ) with a value of 5.6 x 105 this was due to poor hygienic practices by the handlers of these products which lead to the development of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Pseudomonas spp was also isolated in sample A(nono). However, the predominant organism isolated was Escherichia coli

However due to indiscriminate and excessive use of these antibiotics by the consumers of such dairy products lead to the development of pathogenic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.


5.2 Conclusion

The results obtained in this study suggest that the fermented (Nono), unfermented (Madara) and pasteurized milk (yoghurt) available to consumers in Makurdi metropolis were contaminated with food borne pathogens such as E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which is associated with diarrhea and gastroenteritis respectively. Therefore great care should be taken in the consumption of these dairy products especially nono due to the poor handling by sellers.


5.3 Recommendation

NAFDAC should checkmate the problems of poor hygiene and impose sanctions where necessary and periodic factory inspection must be done by regulators in the industry, while strict hygienic measures should be applied during production, processing and distribution of dairy products to avoid contamination with unwanted pathogenic microorganism. In like manner member of staff/vendors should be educated on clean and hygienic practices with respect to such dairy products and milkers should be advice on personal hygiene when handling the cow during milking.


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