Investigating Into The Issue Confronting Women Participation In Building Construction Industry

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Investigating Into The Issue Confronting Women Participation In Building Construction Industry


Abstract


The study centered on investigating into the issue confronting women participation in building construction industry. The study was a survey research .The population of the study was all building contractors in Nigeria. The total number of 100 building contractors in Enugu state was the sample size. The internal reliability of the instrument was ascertained through the Crombach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70 bench mark set by Nunnally (1970). The data are presented in tables and the analysis is done using the chi-square test for hypotheses testing. The study findings reveal that the level of women participation in the constructional industry is not low. The study recommends therefore that there should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to improve the level of women participation in the building construction industry


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The construction sector constitutes one fundamental sector contributing to the development of infrastructure in the economy. The appalling issue concerns the disparity which exists in the employment status between men and women in this sector. Apparently, the sector is male dominated while a few women employed occupy the casual informal employment status of the industry. Firstly, this due to the nature of the work in the construction industry which requires a great lot of physical exertions and the risk of workplace accident is high. Moreover, many women have expressed fear of withstanding at construction sites. The result is that the skilled positions are dominated by the men while the women occupy the unskilled part of the jobs. This situation has continually led to the discrimination of women in occupying managerial positions in the construction industry. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) advocates seven basic rights of women which include The Right to Equal Pay, The Right to Equal Treatment, The Right to Equal Training and Career Opportunities. While this rights are observed in other sectors of employment such as in the Banking sector, it is of no application in the construction industry. There exists a wide disparity between men and women employment status, pay and professional career advancement opportunities as compared to men in the industry. These constitute particular issues affecting the construction sector while industries like IT and banking are exceptional. The study seeks to conduct an investigation into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The nature of work in the construction sector requires physical exactions and it is accompanied with stress which often leads to physical and muscular pain. Also the work environment at work site may not be so conducive as to consider the feminine nature of the woman. Therefore, the assumptions are that are that the woman is physically not strong to be assigned with the nature of work on construction sites. However, in the informal employment status we see an increasing number of women taking up casual jobs in construction industry. The ability of women to function effectively under the type of behavioral conditions in the construction sector is equally doubtful. Studies have shown that the rate of turnover of women were twice greater than that of men to leave the industry because of complaints of pain and injury. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) specified tools, equipment and clothing for construction work are not ideal for women thereby exposing them to reproductive health hazards (Olofsson, 2004; OSHA, 1999). Moreover, there are discriminatory behavior exhibited against women which do not inspire them on the job. Consequently, the problem confronting the study is an investigation into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is an investigation into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry;

The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine the relevance of the construction industry.
  2. To appraise the level of women participation in the construction industry.
  3. To investigate into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the relevance of the construction industry?
  2. What is the level of women participation in the construction industry?
  3. What are the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry?

1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses

The statement of the hypothesis for the study is stated in Null as follows:

  • H01: The level of women participation in the construction industry is low.
  • H02: The issue confronting women participation in the construction industry is negative.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The increasing level of women participation as casual laborers in the construction industry precipitates the need for the investigation into the issues confronting women participation in the construction industry. Inspite of the fact that there are challenges, it is believed the managerial and professional careers exit which women can be trained to participate effectively in the industry. The study shall provide the needed information for policy makers to appraise effectively this issues and proffers recommendations.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the investigation into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Building Construction Defined

These are the construction for residential, non-residential, commercial and institutional works.

Infrastructure Construction Defined

This is the construction for Infrastructure known as heavy civil or heavy engineering works such as bridges, highways, railways, large public works, dams, water or wastewater and utility distribution.

Industrial Construction Defined

Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation, mills and manufacturing plants. There are also other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study focused on the investigations into the issue confronting women participation in building construction industry. The study was set to address three major research objectives. The objectives which include:

  1. To determine the relevance of the construction industry.
  2. To appraise the level of women participation in the construction industry.
  3. To investigate into the issue confronting women participation in the construction industry.

Based on the above stated objectives and the study carried out, the following findings were made:

  1. That the construction industry in Nigeria is very relevant.
  2. That the level of participation of women in the construction industry in Nigeria is low.
  3. That the issues confronting women participation in the construction industry in Nigeria include but not limited to male domination in the industry; low capacity; poor financial support; low family support base and societal expectations.

5.2 Conclusion

The main purpose of this study is to assess the issues confronting women participation in building construction industry. The study was set to address three research objectives. Three research questions guided the study.
In this study, a survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all building contractors in Nigeria, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Relevant literatures were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study. As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made:

  1. That the construction industry in Nigeria is very relevant.
  2. That the level of participation of women in the construction industry in Nigeria is low.
  3. That the issues confronting women participation in the construction industry in Nigeria include but not limited to male domination in the industry; low capacity; poor financial support; low family support base and societal expectations..

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Efforts should be made to consider the introduction of female relative incentives in the construction industry in Nigeria.
  2. Government at all levels should ensure that only qualified building contractors are allowed to be in the construction industry.
  3. There should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to improve the level of women participation in the building construction industry.

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