Internet Misuse By Undergraduates Of Faculty Of Education In Academic Work In The University Of Nigeria Nsukka
The primary objective of the study was to investigate the effect of internet misuse in academic work by undergraduates of faculty of education in the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state. A quantitative survey design and 200 undergraduates in the institution were recruited for the study. A questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage. Findings reveals that student use the internet every day of the week. A good number of students have effective computer skills which results to frequent use of the internet. The study also reveals that a greater number of students prefer internet usage from their personal homes. The study also reveals that most of the students who use the internet use it to obtain course related information which helps to aid their research, prepare for assignments and get access to current information sources. The study also reveals that the Google search engine remain the most popular search engine used by students. The study also reveals that internet has great influence on the academic work performance of students. The study also reveals that the major problem encountered by students in accessing the internet services is the problem of poor internet speed.
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study; there is a need for extensive training programmes organised at regular intervals so that all categories of users can improve their efficiency in the use of the internet; to solve the problem of slow functioning of internet connectivity, the university body should acquire high speed internet connection with maximum bandwidth.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Internet Networking in Nigeria
- 2.3 Internet Misuse and Abuse
- 2.4 Potential Benefits of the Use of Internet
- 2.5 Internet Use and Academic Performance
- 2.6 Overview of Internet Usage in Nigeria Higher Institutions
- 2.7 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Research Setting
- 3.3 Target Population
- 3.4 Sampling
- 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.2 Discussion of Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The Internet is a global network of computers linked together over large distances. It was created by the American military as a means of communication and has been in existence since the I950s Osunade, (2003). Up until the mid- to late eighties mainly commercial organisations and educational institutions used the Internet. This was due to high costs. The rapid development of technology has seen improvement in communication links and a lowering of costs. The implication is that the Internet is now more widely available to more people. The availability and the process by which an effort to use the Internet through an electronic communications system is carried out is referred to as Internet access. The UCLA Internet Report, 1999 that the Internet promises to have a far larger and more serious impacts on our society than the introduction of television; possibly as great an influence on history as the industrial revolution or the printing press. Ojedokun (2001) stated that, it has broken down barriers of communication and information access from anywhere in the world. It is fast, reliable and does not have restrictions on content or format. It also has a limitless range of facilities, which assist users to access almost infinite amounts of information. It offers the opportunity for access to up to- date research reports and knowledge globally. It has thus become an important component of electronic services in academic institutions.
Globally, the Internet has opened countless new opportunities for students. In fact, it has given a very open approach to education where students are no longer dependent on their teachers or textbooks as their only sources of information. With the Internet in vogue, students are no longer limited to what is in the school library, nor do they have to wait for books to come into the school library. Pew Internet and American Life Project (2005), Internet usage is a staple of students’ educational experience as they use it to communicate with teachers and classmates, to do assignment and to access library materials. For most of them it is a functional tool, one that has greatly changed the way they interact with others and with information as they go about their studies. Thus, the Internet broadens students’ horizons beyond their local boundaries (of home and neighbourhood school) and provides an environment in which its impact may be immeasurable. Li and Chung, (2006) and Barges, (2006) incite numerous privileges the Internet has ushered into the students’ world, such studies have established that there are some materials available on the Internet that may be offensive to some students. This might make the Internet be regarded as a strange place just because it is unregulated and unmonitored; its users can be somewhat anarchic and outspoken, to put it mildly. Although it is possible to create network servers that obstruct the avenues to these materials, motivated students quickly identify alternative paths. Thus, despite the numerous benefits of the Internet, there are also many drawbacks.
Osunade, (2003) also stated the fact that the Internet is not owned by anyone leaves no room for checks or censorship of available information. The upside to this is that information is freely available to everyone without restriction, but the downside is that valued information can be placed into the wrong hands, and school children can be unduly exposed to morally damaging information (e.g. pornography). The reason is not far-fetched; it is simply that there are no checks on the information on the net. Ema and Ajayi, (2006) is of the opinion that during the last two decades education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technology (I.C.T.) particularly internet. The use of internet has had major impact in the university context and in teaching and learning methods. One puzzling question is the effective of internet usage on student academic achievement and on the returns of education. Many academic researchers have tried to answer this question at theoretical and empirical levels. On one hand, student performance is hard to observe and there is still confusion about its definition. On the other hand, internet is evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment. However, Community bonding, regardless of its concept, it is synonymous to school bonding. The concept of student bonding is often seen as a way to help create a positive atmosphere that will promote participation in class (that is, making students more comfortable in the often “social risky” environment of the social studies classroom, Wichadee and orawwiwatnakul, (2012).
One of the factors affecting students achievement in selected social studies concept is community bonding of how students is motivated by the community and how the community show care for the student. All this aid the achievement of students in selected social studies concept. Vadebosch (2015) and Phillips (2014) stated that the assessment of community bonding has continued to gain attention as school struggle with poor academic achievement, truancy, delinquency and high student drop rates. Though the findings of these scholars may be peculiar, however the situation is not different in Nigeria as researchers have focused student bonding to their school as a key factor in the success of schools to educate. Greenberg (2011) and Abbott (2001) is of the opinion that high levels of community bonding have been consistently associated with positive youth outcome, such as increased academic motivation, self efficacy, highest scores and low levels of problem behaviour (for example, substance use, risky sexual activity, truancy, bullying, fighting, stealing and vandalism). These scholars further asserted that communities are no longer constrained geographically in the twenty first century. The internet, television, telephone and particularly the mobile phones all mean that communities can exist beyond boundaries of location or time. Despite these realities, relatively little has been written on the potential influence internet usage and community bonding can have on university students’ academic achievement in social studies.
A substantial body of research show that a schools’ social environment that is, ‘The community’ has broad influence on student learning and growth, including major aspect of their social, emotional and ethical development, when student find there school environment to be supportive and caring, and provide for them necessary facilities for the student to be able to have access to the internet, they are less likely to become involved in substance abuse, violence and other problem behaviours. Kamba, (2009) stated that university student is more likely to develop positive attitudes towards themselves and pro-social attitudes and behaviours towards others. There is no standard definition for student achievement. The standard approach focuses on achievement and curricula, how students understand the subjects and obtain their certificate or their marks. However, a more extensive definitions deal with competencies, skills, and attitudes learned through the education experience. The narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in secondary education, while the more complex strategy of observation and focus on the labour market.
The outcomes of education are mainly validated in higher institutions. National Policy on Education NPE, Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) stated a number of several subjects can be identified in the curriculum of our schools at all levels of Nigeria education, the subjects are included with the expectation that when properly taught, a more effective learning will result and this will bring about the realization of the goal of Nigeria educations as stated in the national policy on education. At the primary and secondary levels, there are certain subjects that are classified as core subjects, while others are known as electives. Core subjects are those subjects whom students compulsorily offer while subject, called electives consist of subjects from whom students can freely make their choice, based on their preference and future career interest. At the junior university level, social studies is one of the core subjects, which if effectively taught. lyewarun (1989) has the potential to influence the intellectual, social and personal growth and development of Nigeria youth. The introduction of social studies was due to the need for a more effective way of educating the citizens. This is to make citizens better informed on societal issues and problems as well as to equip them with the skills required for problem solving and effective citizenship Falade, (2007).
This could be seen in the views of Sunal and Haas (2008) that: ‘when Social Studies focuses attention on students’ problems (social, economic, political and environment) students will naturally want to observe, ask questions, seek information, express observation and idea in drawings, argue out their views and act to change things. When students ‘do’ Social Studies, they draw on thinking skills and knowledge from the entire school curriculum as they construct an understanding of their social world and seek to solve the problems it presents’’. Therefore, Social Studies play critical roles in preparing learners to becoming active social participants in the ways of life of their society. Since Social Studies act as subject of enlightens expose Ondo students to the new development in world in area of computer technology which has become global demand in all area of education. This is now a vital subject among other school subjects primarily designed to be taught in Nigeria schools to address the right type of values, attitudes and behaviour, and to develop these aspects of character in a positive and productive way Ojo, (2008). Ekundayo (2003) stated that the development of values and attitudes occupies an integral place in Social Studies.
However, the effect of computer usage on learning social studies is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Ogunsola, (2005) stated that computers are technologies used in conveying, manipulation and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments To meet these challenges, universitys must embrace the new technologies and appropriate internet use for teaching and learning social studies students. Kamba, (2009) stated that the relationship between the use of internet and student performance in universitys is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier economic research has failed to provide clear consensus concerning the effect on students’ achievement.
Since student performance is mainly explained by a student’s characteristics, educational environment and teachers’ characteristics, the use of internet in teaching and learning social studies may have an impact on these determinants and consequently the outcome of education. The differences observed in the performance of students are thus related to the differentiated impact of internet usage on the standard determinants. The direct link between internet usage, community bonding and students’ achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Several studies have tried to explain the role and the added value of the computer/internet technologies in classrooms and students achievement. The first body of literature explored the internet uses. Since the internet revolution, there has been a shift in the literature that focuses more on the impact of online activities. Use of internet, use of educative online platforms, and digital.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For many years, educational researchers have maintained an interest in the effective prediction of students` academic achievement at school. The prediction and explanation of academic achievement are topics of greatest importance in different educational levels. Studies have shown that prior academic achievement is an important predictor of performance at other levels of education. Similarly, cognitive ability was found as the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Valasidou and Bosiou, (2005) confirms that the correlation between cognitive ability and academic achievement tends to decline as students’ progress in the educational system.
The direct link between internet usage, community bonding and students’ achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors. Leuven (2004) stated that there is no evidence for relationship between increased educational use of internet and students` academic achievement. In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between internet usage and some student achievement measures. In support to these, some students may use internet usage to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement.
The influence of internet facility to facilitate academic performance cannot be overemphasized. Despite the numerous benefits of internet facility like easy access of related information for teaching and learning, exchange of study materials between researchers and easy sending and receiving of mails, not just for academic staff, this facility is also used by other members of the university community. This internet facility also seems to pose certain challenges to users at all levels such as problem of finding relevant information needed, slow access speed, overload of information, and power outage. The introduction of social media platforms and the availability of sites that promote anti-social behaviours and social vices have also contributed to the problems, aside this, interruption of signals are of major concern. Based on this, the study intends to investigate the effect of internet misuse in academic work by undergraduates of faculty of education in the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of internet misuse in academic work by undergraduates of faculty of education in the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state. Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;
- To examine the frequency and purpose of internet use among undergraduates of faculty of education.
- To determine the influence of internet misuse on academic work among undergraduates of faculty of education.
- To identify the problems faced by students during internet use in the faculty of education University of Nigeria Nsukka.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the frequency and purpose of internet use among undergraduates of faculty of education?
- What is the influence of internet misuse on academic work among undergraduates of faculty of education?
- What are the problems faced by students during internet use in the faculty of education University of Nigeria Nsukka?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between internet misuse and academic work performance among undergraduates of faculty of education, University of Nigeria Nsukka
- HA1: There is a significant relationship between internet misuse and academic work performance among undergraduates of faculty of education, University of Nigeria Nsukka
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study aims at determining whether or not the misuse of internet has any significant influence on the academic work performance of selected undergraduates in faculty of education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state. And also, to know the effects of internet misuse on the academic workamong undergraduates in faculty of education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state.
Moreover, Education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria as a developing nation needs a standard universitys that has available learning resources, that teachers can improvise learning resources easily and more often and also where teachers and student utilize learning resources on regular basis. It could be a guideline for incoming student is educative to them when writing and studying similar problems in school. This research will be a contribution to body of literature in the subject area of internet usage, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research.
1.7 Scope of Study
The study will be conducted in the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state. The respondents that will be used are the undergraduates of faculty of education in the institution.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the process of carrying out the current study, the researcher encountered some limitations. Firstly, since the focus of this study was on undergraduates in faculty of education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state, the conclusions drawn from this study cannot be generalized to other populations or areas. Secondly, the researcher faced time constraints and financial constraints.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
Is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web..
Refers to improper use of the internet and may include: cyberbullying, use of the internet to bully and intimidate, cybercrime, use of computers in criminal activity, malware, and software designed to harm a user’s computer, including computer viruses.
Academic work involves both the pursuit of knowledge and its dissemination and application through activities including but not limited to research and scholarly activity, teaching, public lectures, conference communications, publications, professional practice, the building of library and archival collections, the provision of mediated access to information, and artistic production and performance.
An undergraduate is a college or university student who’s not a graduate student. After high school, you can become an undergraduate. Undergraduates are students of universities and colleges: they’ve graduated from high school and have been accepted to college, but they haven’t graduated yet.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:
- Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
- Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of the Study
The primary objective of the study was to investigate the effect of internet misuse in academic work by undergraduates of faculty of education in the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu state. A quantitative survey design and 200undergraduates in the institution were recruited for the study. A questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage.
Findings reveals that student use the internet every day of the week. A good number of students have effective computer skills which results to frequent use of the internet. The study also reveals that a greater number of students prefer internet usage from their personal homes. The study also reveals that most of the students who use the internet use it to obtain course related information which helps to aid their research, prepare for assignments and get access to current information sources. The study also reveals that the Google search engine remain the most popular search engine used by students. The study also reveals that internet has great influence on the academic work performance of students. The study also reveals that the major problem encountered by students in accessing the internet services is the problem of poor internet speed.
The fact that internet and its services play an important role on the student’s academic performance cannot be over emphasized, however, its misuse can also have negative effects. This it does through constant exposure of students to up-to-date information and relevant information in their various fields of study. The number of hours spent on the internet will have an effect on the student’s academic performance. The study shows that the use of internet for study purpose and academic achievements are directly proportional to each other. It was revealed that majority of respondents access the internet every day.
Even though the access to internet services has been grossly affected by the class of poverty and degree of exposure amongst other factors, the reduction in rates charged at internet and computer education centres could go a long way to enabling students have more access to latest and useful academic materials. If this suggestion and other recommendations in this study are taken it consideration, it is assumed that the future of the internet use and its academic influence on students is bright.
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;
- There is a need for extensive training programmes organised at regular intervals so that all categories of users can improve their efficiency in the use of the internet.
- To solve the problem of slow functioning of internet connectivity, the university body should acquire high speed internet connection with maximum bandwidth.
- The cost of browsing should be reviewed downward so that student’s access to internet can increase. Students should be informed of possible resource websites via website guides which could be pasted on the notice boards at strategic places on campus and cyber-cafe to enable students know the websites that will fetch them relevant academic materials. This will reduce fruitless exercise experienced by students who claim not to get relevant materials when browsing and it can also help improve academic performance as a result of adequate research.
- Government should as a matter of necessity improve on the present state of power in the country. Internet can only be accessed when there is power to start up servers and computers. If there is constant power supply in the country, it will help boost student’s research by access to internet from personal homes.
- Despite the short comings of the internet, its role as distinct from the use of textbooks and lecture notes should be emphasized by academic staff to help motivate students do research and increase and broaden their knowledge.
- Printing facility should be provided so that users can get print out of their study materials and other important documents.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Is the Internet an unfair source of information for students?
Although it is commonly accepted that the Internet in general is an easily accessed source in which students take unfair advantage in academia, there are many different ways students obtain information on the web.
What is the most widely discussed misuse of the Internet?
The most widely discussed misuse of the internet and the World Wide Web which has been presented in literature is plagiarism or copyright infringement. This refers to students copying and pasting material for their term papers or assignments from sources on the World Wide Web,…
Which students use the Internet the most for academic purposes?
In terms of Internet use for academic purposes, students in social sciences, agriculture and computer sciences scored the highest. In an analysis involving all the students in this study, the total time on the Internet was found to be weakly correlated with the time spent online specifically for academic purposes.
Does the internet enabled phone usage affect the academic performance of students?
The analysis of the students’ perception showed that the internet enabled phone usage does not affect the academic performance of the students but distractions by the usage of phone were notably admitted.