Internal Supervision And Teacher’s Effectiveness In Public Secondary School in Bida Local Government Area, Niger State
Background to the Study
In every society, education has become a basic human need, having been generally accepted as an agent of cultural transmission and renewal. Education has always been given the most desire priority in the national development plan from independence.
Because of it’ importance as an agent of stabilization, social and economic development. Education is an instrument for change and development of the individual and the society as a whole Ajagbe (2017). Ogunlade (2011) defined education as a process of not just acquiring knowledge but the acquisition of the art of utilization of knowledge. It is indeed a life-long process that aims at importing the skills needed to live a purposeful life. At the same vain, it is a process by which a sound mind in a sound body is developed. Therefore it is accepted as an essential ingredient in the process of national development (Dende, 2011).
In order to attain these expectations, Nigeria must consolidate her educational system by ensuring productive, effective, socially and economically promising returns for the receipent of al the various levels of the educational system.
Secondary school education as defined by the National policy on education (2004) as the education received by children after attending primary school education and before the tertiary stage. The broad goals of secondary school education as stated in the National Policy on education (2013) shall be to prepare the individual for:
- Useful living within the society, and
- Preparation for higher education
Specifically secondary school education shall:
- Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of
- Provide diversified curriculum to cater for the difference in talents, opportunities and future roles
- Develop and promote Nigeria language art and culture in the context of world cultural heritage.
- Provide trained manpower in applied science technology and commence at sub-professional grades.
- Inspire student with the desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence
- Foster National unity with an emphasis on the communities that unite us in our diversity.
- Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feeling of others respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live as good citizens.
- Provide technical knowledge and vocational skill necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.
Olorunleke (2011) revealed that many public secondary school are finding it extremely difficult to attain the above highlighted goals because of so many pertinent problems confronting the administration and management of these schools. These difficult are largely due to the problems which students who enlist in these school either face or cause irrespective of their ethnic background, religious belief and family background.
The problems according to Olanrewaju (2008) ranges from truancy, examination malpractices, cultism, hooliganism, poor parential care, drug addiction, non payment of teachers salary. Sulaiman and Kunle (2008) also identified dilapidated infrastructure, most of the public secondary schools lack basic infrastructure. Most of the classroom are old and bereft of any instructional material. The walls are dirty, the rooms are dirty and the facilities are run down the situation is so bad in some school is that over 100 pupils are limped together in a room. The culture of going to the library to read during free period for secondary students is no longer in vogue because some of the libraries have been converted to classrooms.
Kadir (2013) reiterated that there is the need for the establishment of well organized students personnel service to the student so as to enhance their learning process: These service ranges from regular supply of water, electricity, accommodation, transportation, health, catering, services and Guidannce and counseling service, orientation services and financial assistance services, and Guidance and counseling services, orientation services, and financial assistance services.
Childimma (2015) maintained that a lot of attention has been given to some areas of educational activities in order to improve the standard of education, such as increase in enrollment, access and quality but some important aspects have been relegated to the background students often translate to improve students scores, and also retention in the school student personnel services are designed to provide academic, career, personnel counseling based on what individual students lacks. Counseling services is very vital for students lacks. Counseling services is very vital for students retention and success specifically during orientation programmes.
In the light of the above there is the need for necessary students personnel services to be provided in the secondary schools such services as revealed by Oyedeji (1998) are library accommodation services, counseling services, recreational services, transporation services, co-curricular and extra curricular activities and recreational services respectively.
Okesola (2004) revealed that most of the problems in Nigeria educational institutions are due to inadequate or lack of student personnel services for students.
Ogundeji (2005) identified the types of student personnel services that could be in-cooperted into the secondary school system for the mutual benefits of students to include transportation, library services, these services will aid effective teaching and learning and also reduced high rate of indiscipline’s in the school system. Oyedeji (2012) noted that in the high of the myrid of obstacles and challenges in the educational enterprises which therefore necessitated the need for student personnel services in order to contribute meaningfully to effective teaching and learning which in turn will lead to improve student Academic performance in our secondary schools. The rationale for students personnel services at this level of the educational system is to reduce the prevalence of failure, truancy and absentecism and also contributes meaningfully to student academic performance. It is therefore expendient that student personnel services plays a vital role in secondary school as it helps to compliment the teaching and learning process as well as students will being in the school. Therefore this study investigated student personnel services and student Academic Performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area, Kaduna State
Statement of the Problem
The need to make school environment conducive for effective teaching and learning process have become a joint responsibility of the major stakeholders. School have to be provided with the necessary service that will make the students stay in the school environment Hallak (2000) identified student personnel services as the major factors contributing to academic performance in the school system.
Okesola (2004) researched on the relationship between student support services and administrative effectiveness in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. However, the researcher did not look at the available student support services in secondary schools and how they influence administrative effectiveness in secondary schools. Egunjimi (2015) examined institutionally support services and internal efficiency of secondary schools in the state of Osun State, Nigeria. The researcher focused on the available institutional support services and how the services influence the internal efficiency of the schools in the state of Osun Olorunleke (2011) examined student personnel services and student behaviour in university of Ilorin. These researcher focused on he available services and how the services influences student behaviour in the university.
The gap this study tends to fill is to establish whether student personnel services provided in the secondary schools influence student Academic Performance. It is based on this work of previous researchers, that this study examine the availability of student personnel services and their influence on student Academic performance in secondary school in Kaduna North Local Government Area, Kaduna State.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship that exist between student personnel service and student Academic performance of secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area, Kaduna State.
Specifically the Purposes are:
- To ascertain the relationship between library services and student Academic Performance.
- To determine the relationship between recreational facilities and student academic perform
- To find out the relationship between health services and student Academic performance
- To investigate the relationship between guidance and counseling services and student Academic Performance.
- To examine the relationship between Accommodation services and student Academic Performance.
The research questions raised below were basically to guide the conduct of the study
- What is the accessibility to the school library services by the students in public secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- What is the influence of transportation services on student academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- What are the available recreational facilities provided for students in public secondary schools inKaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- What are the health services provided for students in public secondary schools inKaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- What is the influence of school counseling services on student academic performance in secondary schools
The following research hypothesis were formulated for the study
- Ho1: there is no significant relationship between student personnel services and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- Ho1: There is no significant relationship between library services and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- Ho2: There is no significant relationship between transportation services and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- Ho3: There is no significant relationship between recreational activities and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- Ho4: There is no significant relationship between health services and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
- Ho5: There is no significant relationship between Guidance and counseling services and student academic performance in secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study may give us a clue to the government, private, individual and other stakeholders in the educational enterprises on the types student personel services that can aid student academic performance
The finding of the study is significant because, it can be used to improve on the existing student personnel services that are available in the schools;
The finding of the study is significant because it will also help the government and non- governmental agencies to come to the aid of many secondary schools in the provision of necessary student personnel services.
The finding of this study will also provide a useful resources document on the various educational agencies and ministries
This study is significant because it may be of vital importance for educational planners in planning conveniently recreational services, transportation services, library services, that may be used in secondary schools
Finally, the findings of the study can serve as a basis for further research on the topic.
Scope of the Study
The study examined student personnel and students academic performance in secondary schools inKaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
The study is limited to all the 16 public secondary schools in secondary schools inKaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State of which 10 were sampled. There are two main variables in this study i.e the student personnel and student academic performance
Those two variables represented both the independent and dependent variable respectably. The indicators of student personnel service used includes library services, guidance and counseling services, recreational services, transportation services and accommodation services, while student’s academic performance would be measured using NECO results for a period of five years (2010 – 2015) session. The study will use questionnaire and student academic performance proforma.
Operational Definition Of Major Term
In order to give this study a focus, the following terms operationally defined as this:
This refers to the non – instructional services that improve student’s comfortability and enhance student academic performance in the school such services are library services, health services and accommodation services.
This refers to average scores of public senior secondary school student nations in West African Senior secondary school certificate examination (WAEC) between 2010 – 2015 in Kaduna North Local Area, Kaduna State
This is the types of services provided which contributed to the social, physical, health and intellectual development of the students. E.g social club, game, sports
This is defined as services rendered to ensure that student health are in good order.
Public Owned School:
Refers to secondary schools that are owned, managed and founded be Kaduna State Government.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does instructional supervision affect teachers’ effectiveness?
The findings were that there is a significant difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on classroom observation, analysis/strategy, post-conference analysis and post-analysis conference. Teachers in schools where instructional supervision was adequate were more effective than those that had inadequate instructional supervision.
What is the aim of the study of teacher supervision?
The study is also aimed at detecting how this supervision of teacher would be in continuous form so as to bring about improvement in the school activities especially in secondary schools.
How effective is instructional supervisory practice of classroom observation?
The finding of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between instructional supervisory practice of classroom observation and teachers’ role effectiveness. This is corroborated by the view of Charles, Chris and Kosgei (2012) who suggested that head teachers need to effectively supervise teachers.
Do principals carry out adequate instructional supervision of teachers?
It is recommended among others that, the principals should carry out an adequate instructional supervision of teachers so as to enhance their teaching effectiveness.