Internal Audit As A Tool For Ensuring Effective Management Of An Organization (A Case Study Of Some Selected Firms In Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Accountancy

Project and Seminar material for Accountancy


Abstract


This study seeks to evaluate the internal audit system, it aims at identifying the necessary measures, introduced by the organization to ensure the duties are carried out in orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management policies. Strategy and assets and ensure completeness and accuracy of records.
The aims of the study among others

  1. To find out if there is an internal auditor and internal audit section in the firm.
  2. To find out how effective the internal audit section is
  3. To find out if appropriate records is kept.

The findings:
There were, however, various discoveries that were made in the course of ht research work and these include:

  1. Most of the staff do not go on leave due to too many pilled up job
  2. The company sends their worker to training in order to improve their knowledge on their field of specialization.

In writing this research project, I have drawn intensively form a number o f authors whether named in the bibliography or not, I am therefore deeply indebted to such authorities.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.7 Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.8 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Historical Development Of Internal Audit
  • 2.3 The Nature Of Internal Audit
  • 2.4 The Scope Of Internal Audit
  • 2.5 Qualities Of An Internal Audit
  • 2.6 Importance Of Internal Audit In An Organization
  • 2.7 Internal Audit As A Tool For Effective Management
  • 2.8 Summary Of The Chapter

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design-
  • 3.3 Method Of Data Collection/Source Of Data
  • 3.4 Population And Sample Size
  • 3.5 Sample Technique
  • 3.6 Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation Of Data
  • 4.3 Analysis Of Data
  • 4.4 Interpretation Of Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary Of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1. I Background Of The Study

There has been an increasing attention in the system of internal audit in the recent past. This is due mainly to the increasing size of most business units and the complexity of most modern business unit which have encouraged the adoption of different system.

The development of these different systems leads to the efficiency of management and subsequently the output of the management process. Systems such as internal audit, accounting control, electronic data processing system among others are adopted in management for the sole purpose of achieving target goals and objectives ensuring the safeguarding or organizations and the completeness and accuracy of records.

Internal audit is a component of the internal control system set up by management. The history of internal audit system could be traced back to the time when human beings began to form organization to achieve goals which they could not achieve themselves as single individuals. The question of management and co-ordination of effort become essential immediately two individuals or more come together to achieve a common goal.

Over the years, these organizations have grown in physical size and expand vastly in operations and because of this various kinds of irregularities have cropped in ranging form unintentional errors, to frauds.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

An English adage says that “knowing to problems is half the cure” some o f the problems of internal audit are:

  • Many companies do not maintain internal audit section at all
  • Many workers do not co-operate with the internal audit.
  • The workers do not understand their jobs well and this causes ineffectiveness.
  • The internal audit sections do not perform routine checks of day to day financial transactions of the firm.
  • The internal audit does not review existing procedure form time to time with a view of reporting on non-compliance.
  • The internal audit section is usually under staffed.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The purpose and objectives are outlined below:

  1. To find out if there is an internal audit section in the firm
  2. To find out if routine checks are carried out
  3. To find out if the internal auditor and the workers do co-operate, and to what extent
  4. To find out if the internal auditor reviews from time to time existing procedures.
  5. To find out if the workers or staff understand their function correctly.
  6. To find out if the internal audit sections have adequate number of staff.

1.4 Research Question

To conduct an adequate research work and to help in ensuring effective management in an organization through internal auditing, the following research questions will guide this research work.

  1. Does internal audit department aid management in the effective use of resources?
  2. How effective is the use of internal audit to avoid the degree of inadequate management ineffective discharge of it duties?
  3. Does the existence of an effective internal audit department reduce the frequent cases of mismanagement, fraud, embezzlement of fund and non-challant attitude of workers in an organization

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Internal audit has become so imperative that auditors now call for its existence in every organization. This is because a good system of internal audit facilitates the detection of frauds, errors and other irregularities that could manifest in an organizations accounting system.

In recent times, a good system of internal audit has been recognized by management as a valuable tool for effective carrying out of its responsibilities and auditors have pressed for improvement in internal audit system in their effort to be of assistance to their clients.

It is hoped that this work will be if immense benefit not only to the management of the organization but also the auditors. This research will also be of a great use to those intending to write on similar topics especially students writing projects, to who it will serve as a material for reference if kept in the library.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The research ids designed to cover the general principles and procedures of internal control as propounded by experts in the field of accounting, the company and Allied matters Act (CAMA) of 1990 and other recognized accounting and auditing bodies which will provide basis for application in the organization.

The study will also examine the organization ranging form formation through its objectives areas or operation, structures, budgeting, general administration, cash and in general, internal audit procedure with a view to identify areas of weakness if it exist..


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of this work, some constraints were discovered which stood as a stumbling block: such as

Time Factor:

Due to the limited period of time given for this work and extensive search for material was done in order to do a thorough investigation in to the problems being worked on.

Economic Depression:

The persistent downward trend to the limitations of this study. It was difficult under this economic condition to source fund for the finance of this research work.

However, this study will not delve into staff fielding or probe management efficiency as these may call for a separate work in future. The thoroughness of this work has also been limited by the vast number of branches the selected firms have and it is on the strength of this Constraint that the study is being conducted on only the head office of the organizations.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Auditing:

An audit is an independent examination of and expression of opinion on the financial statement of an enterprise, by an appointed auditor in pursuance of that appointment and in compliance with any relevant statutory obligation.

Management:

This is the extent of care and prudence applied me handling resources. Management as used in this study can also refer to senior members. They are people who formulate and enforce policies, and they are also the decision makers.

Effective:

This means achieving a programmed objectives or goals.

System:

A system is an entity which is composed of a number of attributes and is also composed set of relationships which connect the object. It is a predesigned set of rules and procedures to ensure continuity and efficiency of activities.

Control:

Control is essentially a management function that deals with the measurement and correction of performance of the subordinates with a view to achieving organizational objectives with maximum efficiently and at a minimum cost.

Internal Audit:

Internal audit is the independent appraisal activity within an organization for the review of accounting financial and other operation as a basis for protective and constructive service to management. This definition is adopted form the definition given on the responsibility of internal auditors.

Fraud And Irregularities:

In the auditing practices, the committee’s guideline on fraud and other irregularities, fraud is defined as the irregularities involving the use of criminal deception to obtain an unjust or illegal advantage. Irregularities are used to refer to alteration or distortions of financial statements for whatever purpose.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This study was designed to access the role of internal auditing as a tool for ensuring effective management of an enterprise. This chapter shows that the summary, conclusion and recommendations.


5.2 Summary Of Findings

Both internal an external auditing are very vital for effective and efficient management of an organization. Any organization, enterprise, firm etc in as much as the are found enhance cooperate existence and achievement of corporate goals, existence and achievement of corporate goals, internal auditing to take procedure over external auditing in the administrative process. Also it could be noted that adequate internal auditing, facilitates the work of the external auditor.

The following summaries the findings made in he study.

  1. Not all registered firms have internal audit department
  2. Internal auditors report to management on the effectiveness of the system of control
  3. Internal auditor make recommendations to management where necessary
  4. Managaement5 has a high degree of reliability placed on internal audit report
  5. Internal audit helps to implement management polices
  6. An effective internal audit department helps to check fraud and embezzlement of fraud in time.
  7. Resources are effectively utilized that have internal audit department.

5.3 Conclusion

Proper and adequate system of internal audit in the organization is a powerful and dispensable instrument that ensures growth, continuity and survival of the organization.

The following conclusion are drawn from the result of the findings

  1. Internal auditors helps management to fully utilize their resources
  2. Internal auditors enforce management policies and ensure that they are fully implemented.
  3. Internal auditors strictly monitor the system control in other to check fraud and fund embezzlement.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations are made to firms.

  1. Every firm both private and public should establish an effective and efficient system of control
  2. A monitory team Internal audit department) should be established to monitor the system
  3. Internal auditors should be given the necessary co-operation needed in the exercise of their duties.
  4. Internal auditors should be allowed independence of their own so that they can make report fearlessly. A situation where internal auditors are constantly in fear of utilization for discharging the duties should not exist
  5. This should be a periodic review of system of control to ensure that no loopholes have been developed in the system to accommodate fraud, fund embezzlement and resources wastage.
  6. Internal auditors should receive good remuneration
  7. Internal auditors recommendations should be strictly adhered to
  8. Internal audit staff should be properly trained on their fields of work professional and experiment staff should head to department.
  9. Internal auditors should make their reports more often so as to avoid delay on the part of management on urgent issues.

Internal Audit As A Tool For Ensuring Effective Management Of An Organization (A Case Study Of Some Selected Firms In Imo State)


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