Instructional Materials Utilization On JSS 3 Students’ Academic Performance In Mathematics In Ibesikpo Azutan Local Government
Abstract
This Study investigated the impact of instructional materials utilization on Junior Secondary School III students’ academic performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study consists of 200 staff of selected secondary schools in the study area. The researchers randomly selected 200 staff members of selected schools as the population of the study population. The results show that there is no significant difference in the performance of JSS3 Students taught Mathematics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. There are no significant differences in pre-test and post-test scores of Jss3 students taught with instructional materials compared to those without. There is a significant difference between pre- and posttest scores in male and female Students of JSs3 taught with educational materials. In general, students will perform better in Mathematics provided they are allowed to interact or participate effectively in the teaching learning process through the use of instructional material. In addition, Algebra tiles on achievement in algebra as a concept in mathematics had greatest impact compared with only mathematical symbols in learning mathematics. In conclusion, there are inadequate instructional material and resources for the teaching and learning of Mathematics in schools.
Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
The search for efficient and effective delivery of instructions to Students has always been major concern of Science Educators. This is so as a result of repeated mass failure recorded in Mathematics and other Science subjects in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Poor academic performance in Mathematics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. Among other factors that could be responsible for this failure, are the instrumental materials which definitely must have a significant role to play in teaching and learning processes.
The importance of instrumental materials in teaching and learning is too obvious to be overemphasized. A lot has been written to show the indispensable role of instrumental materials in curricular implementation. According to Onyejemezi (2007), Ogunranti (2008) and Afolajic (2009), these authors point out that instructional materials increase the rate of learning, save the teacher time and effort increase learners interest and facilitate retraction of what is learned. To further show the importance of instructional materials, Iegede, Okata, Eniayelu (2011), reported factors responsible for poor performance in Science, Technology and Mathematics which include poor laboratory facilities, inappropriate teaching methods and inadequate number of learning facilities in schools as against consistent increase in number of students.
In condition of insufficient supply of instructional materials by the government, improvised materials can also serve similar role of simplifying explanations given by teachers. Improvisations of instructional materials need the effort of Mathematics teachers for its realization. Bassey (2012) and Omosewo (2013) stated that many Nigerians Science teachers were aware of possibility of improvisation. They also noted that few teachers practice while majority depends on imported equipment and claim that improvisation is time consuming and often depleting.
Whether instructional materials are classified as improvised or imported, the most important effect of these materials is to assist in achieving the stated behavioural objectives when evaluated at the end of a lesson or programme. These findings refer generally to teaching Science subjects in Nigerian Schools. One is not sure what the situation is with Mathematics teachers in Akwa Ibom State. Hence, this Study on teacher’s use of instructional materials on Junior Secondary School III students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area worth investigating.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With regard to different views held on importance of instructional materials by different authors and the observed progressive decline in Secondary School Students’ academic performance in Mathematics in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), there is need to further investigate the roles of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of junior Secondary School III Students in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The Study investigated instructional materials utilization on junior Secondary III Student’s performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The Study is defined to achieve the following objectives.
- To examine the difference in the performance of Students taught Mathematics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.
- To determine the differences in pre-test and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials
- To examine the difference between the post-test scores of male and female Students taught with instructional materials.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The use of various instructional materials to examine the achievement of Educational objectives in Mathematics need not be overemphasized. The findings of this Study will be useful to many people. Teachers will get to understand better, the level of Students performance in mathematics through the use of instructional materials. Educational authorities may use the findings of this Study to stress to teachers during seminars and workshops the steps of instructional materials to emphasize in the course of teaching Mathematics in the junior Secondary School Classes. Textbooks writers on instructional materials can make the outcome of this Study a reference point in their books while discussing matters relating to methodology and Students performance. Finally, the Students will benefits because the finding of this Study will encourage Mathematics teachers to use the instructional materials in the Study, when those instructional materials are used; the Students are likely to perform more better in mathematics.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the Study.
- Is there any significant difference between Students taught with instructional materials?
- Is there any significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials?
- Is there any significant difference between the post-test scores of the male and female Students taught with instructional materials?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the research Study.
- There is no significant difference between the performance of Jss3 Students taught Mathematics with instructional materials and those without instructional materials
- There is no significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of Jss3 Students taught with instructional materials
- There is no significant difference between post-test scores of male and female Students of Jss3 taught with instructional materials.
1.7 Basic Assumption
For the purpose of this Study, the following assumption was made.
Teachers hardly use different instructional materials in the course of teaching Mathematics to junior Secondary School III Students.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The Study is delimited to the assessment of the contributions of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of Jss3 Students in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Although many instructional materials may contribute to Students performance in Mathematics, for the purpose of this Study, only computer, Mathematical games, Models and realia’s were selected for investigation. Specifically, the scope of the Study covers only sample of Students in junior Secondary III from four Schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The Study was conducted in the 2014/2015 School year.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The study was demanding at different facts and the lean financial resources available would not sustain wider courage. The administrative polities to unvalidated data gathering instruments, time, sampling technique and the unwillingness of the schools visited to release the students constituted some of the major constrain to the study.
1.10 Definition of Operational Terms
Certain terms used in the Study required operational definitions; such terms are defined as shown below:
Instructional Materials:
These are tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. Four of such selected for the Study include; Mathematical game, Computer, Models and Realia.
Students’ performance in Mathematics:
This is a measure of Students’ achievement and learning, such as students scores on pre-test and post-test.
Computer:
This is an electronic machine that stores certain Mathematical software’s that are used to do calculations during a Mathematics lesson to provide enjoyment and recreation and at the same time stimulate Mathematical thinking.
Mathematical Models:
These are three dimensional man-made objects which are representatives of real objects. They offer concrete information’s to the learners and some could be manipulated dismantled, enlarged and reduced. They are useful for instructions and learning.
Realias:
These are also three-dimensional objects, they are similar to the models but differ in the sense that they are real objects that can be destroyed in the process of dismantling. They are three dimensional in that they have length, breadth and depth or height. Examples are Cuboids, Cubes etc.
Pre-test:
This is a test given to Students before the administration of instructional program or segment.
Post-test:
This is a test given to students after completion of an instructional program, or segment and often used in conjunction with a pre-test to measure the achievement and the effectiveness of the program.
Independent Samples:
These are samples which are randomly formed.
Chapter Five
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Introduction
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the impact of instructional materials utilization on JSS3 student academic performance in mathematics
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of instructional materials utilization on JSS3 students’ academic in mathematics.
5.2 Summary
The researcher is of the opinion that instructional materials performed significantly better compared to the control group. In general, students will perform better in Mathematics provided they are allowed to interact or participate effectively in the teaching learning process through the use of instructional materials.Geo board as an instructional material had big impact on geometry achievement as compared to only mathematical symbols in learning mathematics. Algebra tiles on achievement in Algebra as a concept in mathematics had greatest impact compared to only mathematical symbols
5.3 Conclusion
There are inadequate instructional materials and resources for the teaching and learning of Mathematics in schools. Most teachers do not use the available materials effectively well for fear of wasting their time. The lack of necessary instructional materials and resources reduces the students to mere passive participants in the learning process. Also, the fact that Mathematics teachers are not adequate in schools does not give room for proper usage of instructional materials. They dwell more on the number of classes they will cover per day rather than focusing on the use of instructional materials for effective learning and teaching. They dwell more on ‘what to teach’ and not ‘how to teach’. In general, students will perform better in Mathematics provided they are allowed to interact or participate effectively in the teaching learning process through the use of instructional materials.
5.4 Recommendations
Haven completed the study, the researcher recommends that principals, proprietors and officials of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should ensure regular supervision to enhance effective use of instructional materials and resources in the teaching of Mathematics in Schools. Also, emphasis should be placed on the use of instructional materials in preparing teachers and provision of in service training to update skills.
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