Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching Of Economics: A Case Study Of Some Selected School In Oredo Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching Of Economics: A Case Study Of Some Selected School In Oredo Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was conducted to investigate the use of instructional materials in the teaching of Economics in secondary schools using Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State as case study. During the study, data were collected by means of questionnaire and it was detected that the place of instructional materials is very important in the teaching of economics in secondary schools. The researcher thereby stressed that instructional materials is very important and therefore should be in any school setting. Furthermore she also stressed that instructional materials will increase the interest of the students in learning, a development that will enable the child to become a useful person to the society. In conclusion, it was recommended that instructional materials should be used in every school in Edo State for effective teaching and learning process to take place


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to the student.

Health on the other hand, is been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) “as a state of complete, physical, mental and social well being not merely the absent of disease or infirmity.

According to Odue (2011), economics is a process of acquiring health information to make judgment on health behaviour and practices. Economics is sum of all experiences that will develop desirable attitudes, practices and knowledge of an individual, family of community health. The emphasis in economics also includes a teaching and learning transaction between the health teachers and the recipient or student. According to Adeniyi (2000), the use of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skillfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching of economics . Using Oredo Local Government Area as the case study.

However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. They are internal when they lie within the individual and external when they lie outside the learner or individual as the case may be.

Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non-textual, the visual the auditory and audio-visual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of instructional materials in economics classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development in Oredo Areas of Edo State. The current study is carried out to address the issues of the use of instructional materials in economics teaching in the schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The use of instructional materials in economics instructions has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds.

Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since economics is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in economics have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teaching-learning situations.

The problems are that; instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and reluctant in using them.

Thus, in this research attempt would be made to:-

  1. Identify various secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State that required instructional materials.
  2. Identify instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of economics in secondary school.
  3. Identify instructional materials available in secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area.
  4. Identify how the use of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc affect the performance of students in secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is;

  1. To identify how frequently economics teacher utilizes instructional materials during economics lessons.
  2. To identify problem associated with these of instructional materials in economics instruction.
  3. To identify reason why the teacher do not use instructional materials.
  4. To identify the benefits of instructional materials to the student.
  5. To identify suggested solutions to the problem of instructional materials.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. How frequently do economics teachers utilize instructional materials during economics lesson?
  2. What are the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in economics instruction?
  3. What are the reasons why the teachers do not use instructional materials?
  4. What are the benefits of instructional materials to the students?
  5. What are the suggested solutions to the problems?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to identify the importance of instructional materials in teaching of economics and how both the teacher and the learner can manipulate the instructional materials to achieve maximum learning objectives.

The study would be a great importance to the ministry of education and the Edo State Government and society at large. It will certainly help the ministry too to identify the basic instructional materials for teaching and learning of economics. This is equally of great importance to the students in Oredo, since it will help them to identify the instructional materials that are lacking in their school and make necessary provision for them.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the use and effect of instructional materials in teaching economics in Oredo Local Government Area.

It is the desire of the researcher to go round some selected primary and post primary school in Oredo Local Government Area to make some observation of the use of instructional materials by the teachers and learners to effect the teaching and learning situation.


1.8 Definition of Terms:

Instructional Materials:

Things that help teaching and learning process to be more effective and efficient.

Health:

As a complete state of physical, mental social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease.

Education:

Process of requiring information, instruction, knowledge and skills that brings about attitudinal change in the behaviour of an individual.

Performance:

The process of accessing the student behavioural change through process of asking question.

Utilize:

Making use of instructional materials on the individual.

Audios:

These are teaching aids which appeal to sense of hearing.

Audio-Visual:

These are instructional materials that can be used to assist teaching and learning via the sense of sight and hearing.


1.9 Assumption

  1. Learning is more meaningful to the child through the use of instructional materials.
  2. Teachers who use instructional materials are more effective in their teaching than those who do not make use of instructional materials.
  3. Instructional materials are so expensive and difficult to make.
  4. A lot of teachers teach in abstraction.
  5. It is the duty of the ministry of education to supply or provide instructional materials to school.
  6. It is only the student in training that makes use of the instructional materials in order to pass their examination.
  7. Enough instructional materials are not being used in primary and post primary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
  2. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
  3. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the use of instructional materials in teaching of economics.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching of economics.


5.2 Summary

From the data collected and analysed the respondents agreed that most students do not have interest in studying economics. Most students do not listen, concentrate in the classroom some of the students stay away from economics lesson and some have the feelings or impression that economics is too difficult, it contribute to their poor performance in the subject.

According to Adrin (1984) on his own view, comment on bad impression about economics that children loose interest either totally or partially in economics subject due to the bad impression they have about economics that some of them have the notion that economics is a difficult subjects therefore fail to listen and concentrate during the lesson thereby lead them to poor performance in the subject.

The respondents agreed that lack of instructional material causes students poor performance in economics. Despite the benefits or advantages derive from using instructional equipments or aids, the respondents agreed that their schools do not have it and their teachers do not make use of it in teaching and learning of economics and this leads to their poor performance in the subject. Fufunwa (1976) stated that “one of the setback in learning of economics in many secondary schools is lack of economics equipment or material aids”


5.3 Conclusion

The study concluded that the importance of instructional materials in the development of learners’ intellectual abilities and attainment of teaching/learning objectives cannot be over-emphasized. The students taught with instructional materials have excellent achievement scores compared with those taught without any material.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were therefore made:

  1. Students should corroborate the efforts of other stakeholders in improvisation of instructional materials to enhance learning and promote academic performance in schools.
  2. Teachers should always try their best to make use of available instructional materials where necessary to make their lessons more interesting
  3. Teachers of Social Studies are encouraged to search for necessary instructional materials that can appeal to the senses of learners, arouse their interest, encourage their participation, make learning more meaningful and promote academic standard.
  4. Parents should be ready to cooperate with teachers in the provision and improvisation of instructional materials for better instructional delivery in schools.
  5. School principals should provide Social Studies teachers with enabling environment for the use of available instructional material to gives room for participatory studentship and make learning more meaningful.
  6. School principals should also encourage improvisation of instructional materials by students, teachers, the schools parents and the government to enhance teaching/learning in schools and promote academic standard.

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