The Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching Business Studies At The Junior Secondary Schools
The Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE) was developed to meet national technological and economic needs. One of the ways of achieving this policy thrust was the introduction of Business Studies (Business Education subjects) into the Nigerian secondary school curriculum in 19822, including the Junior Secondary School Curriculum in 1982, including the junior secondary school level. This study was carried out in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos North and South L.G.A of LagosState. The study was guided two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted in this study. The target population of the study was all the JSS three students in Lagos North and South L.G.A in Lagos state. A sample of 236 students was drawn from the population of 600 through simple random procedure. The selection of the sample was based on the recommendation of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. A test items was used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analyzed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The study found difference exists between the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents in the experimental group which indicate that the performance of students improved when instructional material was introduced in the lesson. The study recommends that at all time teachers school employ instructional material during lesson.
1.1 Background of Study
The Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE) was developed in 1977 with a focus on meeting national technological and economic needs. One of the ways of achieving this policy thrust was the introduction of Business Studies (Business Studies Subject) into Nigerian secondary school curriculum in 1981. The objective was to give student of Junior Secondary Schools to give students of junior secondary schools a general introduction to the broad field of business, thus, laying a solid foundation for well equipped and informed practitioners that will support economic growth. The National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004).
Section 3 defines Basic Education as “Basic Education shall be of 9 years duration comprising 6 years of primary education and 3 years of junior secondary education. It was further amended in (2010) as 9-3-4, primary school shall be of basic 1 to 9, secondary 3 years and tertiary 4 years. The act of 2004 also defined Universal Basic Education thus.
Universal Basic Education means early childhood are and education, Business Studies subjects are part of the foundational requirements for building a solid background in students towards a competent career in business, management, administration, arts and social science.
The use of instructional materials as an aid to teaching is one of the means of achieving the noble objectives of introducing Business Studies at the Junior Secondary School level. The work examined the use of instructional materials in teaching Business Studies, the effectiveness, both from students and teachers view and the impact on general students performance for a state with high student population like Lagos.
Instructional resources which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It has been defined as learning resources associated with objects, persons or other aspects of the environment which can be used to impact, or help in any learning activity (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials are befits the teacher as it make instruction easier and the learners as it make the learning objectives clearer (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students‟ interest; stimulating desires in learning and make them participates in the lesson (Mba, 2004). In a situation like this, students‟ academic performance could be positively influence. Instructional materials include both the printed and audio-visual materials and as well resource places and person. Printed instructional materials include, but not limited to textbooks, journal articles, instructor manuals and guides, student workbooks, assignments, and other reference materials. Audio-visual materials consist of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and/or television (Onyilagha & Nnajiofor 2016).
Business studies is given a core status and made compulsory subject for all students in Junior secondary school in Nigerian educational system due to its relevance in enabling citizens acquire skills, knowledge, attitude and values with which they will use to explore their environment so as to have a comfortable and fulfilled life (Olayinka, 2016). To enable the acquisition of skills attitude, values and knowledge and development of self- confidence and self- actualization of the younger generation as envisage by the Nigerian Policy of Education (2004) which is in line with the objectives of teaching Business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Nigeria, the use of instructional material becomes necessary and needed tool which cannot be over emphasized. This implies that for effective achievement of Business studies objectives, teachers most employ instructional materials in Business studies instruction at all times.
There is therefore, the need to carry out similar study in Lagos state thus this informed the present research with the hope that it will fill up the gap in literature and attempts to find out if the use of instructional materials could improve the performances of students in this subject at the junior senior secondary school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most of our Primary and Secondary schools in Nigeria hardly well equipped with instructional materials. Even schools that have them does not utilize them well. Higher educations are also facing the same problem and even those that practices using instructional materials among them are not properly rewarded. In other words, lack of institutional readiness to use the instructional materials even when made available is a problem. It shows lack of support for the use of instructional materials in secondary schools in Lagos State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study was based on the following objectives which are to:-
- Determine the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts with the use of instructional materials.
- Determine the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts without the use of instructional materials.
- Advance means of making learning and teaching become more concrete, real, immediate and permanent in the classroom.
- Improve instruction methods in the classroom.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts with the use of instructional materials?
- What is the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts without the use of instructional materials?
- What ways or method can be used it improve the use of instructional materials in junior secondary school.
- How can we make teachers develop interest in using instructional materials in class rooms?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study.
- There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts with the use of instructional materials.
- There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Business studies concepts without the use of instructional materials.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to be relevant to the following:
- Help to bring awareness of teachers on the need to at all time used instructional materials in class room instruction.
- The study will stimulate school administrators to ensure that teachers make use of instructional materials effectively
- This study would enable the State Education Board to appreciate the relevance and provides instructional materials in teaching-learning not only in Business studies but in all subject areas; and
- This study will be a material in which other research can make reference to.
1.7 The Scope of the Study
This study assessed the use of instructional materials in junior secondary schools in Lagos State. Sampled schools from both public and private schools were involved.
Students, teachers, school management and authorities were consulted with the aim of appraising the present use and impact of instructional materials in schools at the junior secondary level.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The limiting factors of this study include:
- Reluctance of the teaching staff to disclose area of weaknesses on the subject matter.
- The unwillingness of the school administrators to make available their concern over judicious use of Instructional Materials to other subjects apart from business studies.
- The study relied primarily on survey research instrument as the source of getting information from the respondent.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
All kinds of materials for instructional process. This will also be taken to include all kinds of instructional media.
All kinds of instructional media employed in teaching., these inculcate, television, radio, textbooks, computer models, flat-pictures, graph, charts, diagrams, comics, posters, flannel broads, magnetic board, maps, globes, slides, films strips, motion pictures, transparencies, projectors, records players, tape-records players, tape-recorders, cassette players video tape and recorders.
Instructional media which are used in presenting the materials. It includes, bulletin board, cardboard, tape recorder, slide and film strips, projectors, motion pictures, overhead projectors, opaque projectors, and other forms of projectors.
Instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence or verbal symbols or language. It does not include printed materials like textbooks and reference books, examples, television, cassette, video-tapes.
Improvised or Teacher Made:
These include instructional materials which are made by teachers or pupils or jointly by both pupils and teaches, using resource from the school environment or raw materials which are imported from outside the school environment, e.g. maps, pictures, slides.
Instructional materials which are not made by the teachers or pupils or by both of them.
Production centre where most of the instructional materials can be produced, acquired, stored and maintained for instructional purposes.
This refers to all the classroom teachers who use the instructional materials in teaching pupils/students. They can design, produce or recommend the purchasing of any instructional materials that they feel relevant in teaching any specific topic as stipulated in the instructional objectives.
State Primary Education Board:
The term refers to the board at state headquarters controlling the affairs of all Local Government Education Authorities in the State.
1.10 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter dealt with the summary of the major findings of the study. It also puts forth the conclusions made and recommendations based on the findings of the study. It is the hope of the researcher that the recommendations made in this study will be implemented by those concerned with Business studies education and other subjects areas in Lagos North and South L.G.A in particular where this study is based and Nigeria in general.
This study is entitled: The use of instructional materials in teaching business studies at the Junior Secondary schools. The study was guided two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted in this study. The target population of the study was all the JSS three students in Lagos North and South L.G.A in Lagos state. A sample of 234 students was drawn from the population of 600 through simple random procedure. The selection of the sample was based on the recommendation of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. A test items was used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analyzed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and test. The study that found difference exists between the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents in the experimental group which indicate that the performance of students improved when instructional material was introduced in the lesson.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher drew the following conclusions;
- It has been shown in this study that instructional materials have significant influence on the performance of the students in their academic work.
- From the findings, it was established that lack of instructional materials and its usage in teaching and learning of Business studies made students to perform poorly in their academic work.
Since it has been discovered from this findings that lack of instructional materials and its usage in teaching and learning of Business studies is the major courses of the students poor performance in their academic work, so the State Ministry of Education, Education Board and the Local Government Education Authorities among other should consider the recommendations below, hence it is agreed that instructional materials plays a significant role in motivating the pupils to learn, interest them in the subject, yield better performance, made practicing teachers to have confidence in whatever concepts they wants to impact to the pupils, so the uses of such materials should be encouraged.
The findings of this study as enumerated above have made it necessary to make some recommendations of certain measures which will help in the supply, acquisition and enhancement of the effective use of these instructional materials in the secondary schools in Lagos North and South L.G.A of Lagos State and Nigeria in general.
- Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of Business studies.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subject very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
- Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
- The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipments which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
- A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructional materials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipments which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
- Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipments. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
- Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
- The available Business studies text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge
This study, contributes to knowledge and literature in the following ways:
- The study found that the use of instructional material contribute to students academic performance. Based on this finding teachers are encourage to employ instructional material effectively during Business studies instruction which will serve as a remedy to the risen problems of poor academic performance of students.
- This study has contributed to body of literature in the area of instructional material and academic performance generally and with reference to Lagos state in particular.
5.6 Suggestion for Further Study
This study was delimited to two LGA of Lagos state. The findings might differ if all the senatorial zones and rural schools in the state were involved in the study. The researcher considers this as a limitation to the present study.
The following is therefore, suggested for further study:
- The study could be replicated to cover all the Senatorial zones in Lagos state.
- The study on the assessment availability and suitability of instructional material in implementing Business studies curriculum.
- Assessment of teachers competency in the use of multi-media instructional material in implementing Business studies curriculum.
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