Instructional Materials As A Factor That Influence Physics Students’ Academic Achievement And Retention In Public Senior Secondary Schools

Physics Education Project Material

Instructional Materials As A Factor That Influence Physics Students’ Academic Achievement And Retention In Public Senior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine instructional materials as a factor that influence physics students’ academic achievement and retention using some selected public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State, determine the extent the use of instructional materials promotes effective instructional delivery of physics among secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State, find out the impact of instructional materials in stimulating students’ interest in learning of physics, find out the impact of instructional materials in enhancing students’ retention ability in physics learning, and find out the impact of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of physics teachers of some selected secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State. The study also revealed that instructional materials has a positive impact in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics. Therefore, it is recommended that teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The significance of instructional materials in the school teaching and learning environment cannot be overstated. Instructional materials are learning aids that employ both sight and sound to impart meanings to students and enhance their educational experience (Nolan, 2022).
Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self- confidence and self- actualization. They are print and non-print items that impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids, concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning.  Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy. Therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) .The Board is also responsible for the content of all instructional materials used in a classroom, whether adopted and purchased from the state-adopted instructional materials list, adopted and purchased through the District instructional materials program or otherwise purchased or made available in the classroom.

Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2002), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the applications of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such a Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. Many investigations have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting dwindling interest in Science (Esiobu, 2005). Besides, Physics as one of the Science subjects remains one of the most difficult subjects in the school curriculum according to the Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) (Isola, 2010). Studies have revealed that the performance of Nigerian students in Ordinary Level Physics was generally and consistently poor over the years (Akanbi, 1983; Omosewo, 1999).

Poor academic achievement in Physics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This imply that the mastery of Physics concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of Physics without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. Bassey (2002) opined that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of Physics in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally. Researchers such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the most problems facing Nigeria education today is poor performance in science education. The rate of student poor academic achievement in physics is really disturbing, internal and external examination. The poor academic achievement of students in physics has attributed to many factors which are lack of instructional material and skills needed for effective teaching and inability to provide or improvise material relative to the topic depending on the school type. Unqualified teachers and teacher’s attitude towards effective teaching and learning, lack of student interest in physics as subject. It is observed that most students complain of being taught principles that seem to be abstract in nature because materials such as textbooks, most board and essential equipment like computer, projector, television and video are not readily available in many schools. In Indian axioms that says, what I hear, I may forget but what see, hear and touch I will never forget. This is because physics teachers adopt the verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching and learning of physics thereby making students to loose interest. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery. (Afolabi, 2009). This study therefore deemed it necessary to look specifically into the contributions of instructional materials to academic achievement of secondary school students in physics. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in Physics that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine instructional materials as a factor that influence physics students’ academic achievement and retention in public senior secondary schools.

The specific objectives include:

  1. Determine whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State.
  2. Determine the extent the use of instructional materials promotes effective instructional delivery of physics among secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State.
  3. Find out the impact of instructional materials in stimulating students’ interest in learning of physics.
  4. Find out the impact of instructional materials in enhancing students’ retention ability in physics.
  5. Find out the impact of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics.

1.4 Research Question

This research is an attempt to answer the following questions:

  1. Is there an adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State?
  2. What is the extent the use of instructional materials promotes effective instructional delivery of physics among secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State?
  3. What is the impact of instructional materials in stimulating students’ interest in learning of physics?
  4. What is the impact of instructional materials in enhancing students’ retention ability in physics?
  5. What is the impact of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The effective use of instructional materials does not promotes physics students’ academic achievement and retention.
  • Ha: The effective use of instructional materials does not promotes physics students’ academic achievement and retention.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study’s findings and recommendations will drive various governments and school authorities to devise methods for employing instructional materials successfully in the teaching and learning of topics in secondary schools.

For faster absorption and retention of information in the teaching-learning systems of various institutions, teachers might train students in the proper use of instructional resources.

The parents would not be excluded either. They would understand the significance of the use of suitable instructional materials by instructors in the teaching of various subjects, be able to assist schools financially in the acquisition of current instructional materials, and value the projects assigned to their children.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to examine instructional materials as a factor that influence physics students’ academic achievement and retention in public senior secondary schools. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials:

Refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on instructional materials as a factor that influence physics students’ academic achievement and retention using some selected public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine instructional materials as a factor that influence physics students’ academic achievement and retention using some selected public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State, determine the extent the use of instructional materials promotes effective instructional delivery of physics among secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State, find out the impact of instructional materials in stimulating students’ interest in learning of physics, find out the impact of instructional materials in enhancing students’ retention ability in physics, and find out the impact of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were physics teachers of some selected secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning of physics among public senior secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State.
  2. The extent the use of instructional materials promotes effective instructional delivery of physics among secondary schools in Etche Local Government Area, River State is low.
  3. Instructional materials has a positive impact in stimulating students’ interest in learning of physics.
  4. Instructional materials has a positive impact in enhancing students’ retention ability in physics.
  5. Instructional materials has a positive impact in promoting students’ academic achievement of physics.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations.
  2. The government should strive and set aside a reasonable amount of education budget which will be directed to improve and construct libraries and provide instructional materials in schools.
  3. More seminars/workshops on the use of diverse instructional materials available should be organized at least bi-annually to acquaint teachers on how to use them in teaching a secondary school subject.
  4. The heads of schools should rise their voice to be heard by parents as well as the government on the importance of improving and promoting good instructional materials in schools since the success or failure of a student will not only depend on the qualification of the teacher.

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