The Use Of Instructional Materials In Some Selected Secondary Schools In Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area Of Lagos
This study focused on the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos. The objective of the study were to find out; the instructional materials that could promote the teaching; and ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials for teaching. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The population of the study consist 200 teachers and twenty (24) teachers were randomly selected from 10 secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire mean and frequency distributions were used for data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that textbooks, community resources, globs, maps and tape recorders among others are instructional materials that could promote teaching. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendation made.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework of Instructional Materials
- 2.2 Instructional Materials In Social Studies
- 2.3 Influence of Instructional Materials Teaching
- 2.4 Ways of Promoting Effective Use of Materials in Teaching
- 2.5 Review of Related Empirical Studies
- 2.6 Summary of Related Literature Reviewed
3.0 Research Method
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validation of the Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
The teaching and learning of social studies in schools has been faced with a lot of problems. Aguokogbuo (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge, skills, so on to an immature or less experienced person. On the other hand Omebe (2009) defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is a function of previous behaviour usually referred to as practice.
Aguokogbuo (2008) stated that teaching involves some complex activities on the part of both the teacher and learner in the classroom. These activities, according to him, must be designed and guided so as to promote learning. According to Okoro (2009) one of the problems militating against the teaching and learning of social studies is non-availability and use of instructional materials. The general purpose of classroom instruction is to help teachers achieve set instructional objectives. According to Mezieobi (2007), effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.
Sarah (2008) instructional material is defined as audio-visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning and others as curriculum materials It involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of things/objects to ensure effective communication between an educational agent (the instructor) and the learner.
Onwuka (2007) and Mkpa (2008) see instructional material as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructor’s time and efforts a way of capturing learner’s interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students busy and active and a way of stimulating imagination.
National Teachers Institute defined instructional materials as those materials (audio, visual, and audio visual) which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher communicate more effectively. Instructional materials therefore are teaching aids which aid teaching and make the concept taught more real to the learner which also facilitate teaching and learning. These instructional materials according to Fadeiye (2005), bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Fadeiye added that instructional materials are not an end in themselves but they are means to an end.
Nweke (2008) stated that teaching is instrumental to learning and learning is more permanent when more of the senses are involved in the learning process. To facilitate clear comprehension of social studies instructional materials, Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2007) categorized them into two groups, namely, reading and non-reading materials According to them, reading materials include textbooks, magazines, newspapers, and references among others while non-reading materials include pictures, maps, globes, and field trips among others, including all types of community resources such as industrial plants, museums, zoos, parks and resource persons.
Karma (2006:61) outlined the importance of instructional materials as follows:
- Instructional materials appeal to different senses in children thereby involving them all the learning process.
- They help to make learning more permanent.
- They make the lesson more lively and interesting.
- The complement and supplement the teaching process.
Despite the indispensability of instructional materials in the pedagogy of social studies, there appear to be problems militating against the effective use of instructional materials in social studies. One of such problems according to Fadeiye (2008) is non availability of such materials. However, Agu (2006) lamented that instructional materials focused on the use of chalkboard and foreign textbooks by teachings. He also stated that most of the teachers of social studies lack the needed experience in the use of certain instructional materials.
To promote effective use of instructional materials in social studies, Fadeiye (2008) state that encouragement should be given to teachers to improve some of the instructional materials from local materials. Teachers cannot shy away from this challenge and the earlier they rise to the occasion, the better for our country. The improvisation of some teaching aids from local materials, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, will go a long way to promote effective teaching particularly in social studies. Hence, the need to carry out this study on the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The overriding goal of what social studies teacher genuinely do in the classroom setting is to cause effective learning to occur. This is in line with the description of Ezeoha (2006) of the classroom as the power-house in which the success of learning process is generated.
Unfortunately, while most teachers and administrators adopt social studies their means of teaching citizenship, it is ironical that most of them differ remarkably when it comes to the application of appropriate instructional materials that are used in social studies. Some teachers according to Fadeiye (2005) teaching without instructional materials either because of non-availability of such materials of because they lack knowledge as regard the relevance of instructional materials in teaching. This leads to poor understanding of important concepts in social studies.
This is therefore, a serious challenge to the concerned agencies and authorities. If the problem is not properly identified and checked, students may likely develop apathy for social studies education even at a higher level. It is based on this background that the researcher is motivated to study the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study, is to assess the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos.
The study is specifically designed to;
- Find out the instructional materials that could promote teaching and learning in selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Find out the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and learning in selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Find out ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials in selected secondary schoolsin Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated by the researcher to guide the study:
- What are the instructional materials that could promote teaching oand learning in selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
- What is the influence of instructional materials in teaching and learning in selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
- What are the ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials in selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
HO1: There is no significant influence of use of instructional materials on effective teaching and learning in some selected secondary schools in Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is significant to teachers, students, ministry of education, curriculum planners etc The result of the study will expose the teachers to various instructional materials that could be used in the teaching of social studies The result of the study will equally acquaint the teachers, as well as students with the knowledge of the influence of instructional materials on the teaching insecondary schools.
The study will also help the Ministry of Education as well as school authorities to develop and put to use appropriate instructional materials which will help promote teaching and learning in secondary schools The study will serve as a guide to other researchers who may wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the topic or study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Also known as teaching/learning materials, are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.
Can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and application of knowledge, concepts and processes. It includes design, content selection, delivery, assessment and reflection.
The process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
As opposed to the importation of culture-bound theories and practices to Nigeria and their unquestionable acceptance by Nigerian academics in education and others in the other field of study without due considerations of the relevance of these theories and practices in our social milieu, this study, is in accord with the social relevance philosophy of social studies education, has x-rayed the curriculum materials and resources that are of direct relevance to social studies interactive process in junior secondary schools. In this way, the realities as the effect social studies teaching-learning and their resources in Nigeria such as the two dimensional materials, human and non-human resources abound in and around the community in which our schools are located. Social studies teacher should therefore tap these resources to their maximum advantage in teaching-learning process.
The dependence on high level technology such as radios and televisions for social studies instructional effectiveness in Nigeria at this point of our developmental metamorphosis is not only unrealistic, it will also impede the proper institutionalization of social studies education.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- The Ministry of Education in collaboration with the school authorities should be actively involved in monitoring and supervising the activities of teachers as regards the use of instructional materials in the classroom.
- Considering the fact that there are individuals differences among students, social educators must have relevant knowledge about the various instructional materials and use them accordingly in order to carry everybody along in the classroom This call for a review of the social studies teacher preparation programme to incorporate courses in design and production of instructional resources.
The Use Of Instructional Materials In Some Selected Secondary Schools In Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area Of Lagos
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