Injustice, Poverty And Unemployment As Factors Fueling School Kidnappings And Other Criminalities In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Injustice, Poverty And Unemployment As Factors Fueling School Kidnappings And Other Criminalities In Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

Background Of The Study

Kidnapping is a global phenomenon that stems from terrorism and social vices. It is an endemic illness that has spread throughout Nigeria’s states. The word “kidnap” comes from two English words: “kid” (infant) and “nap” (to kidnap) (Sleep). It is a method of kidnapping someone and holding them hostage in exchange for a ransom payment. Kidnapping dates back to the 17th century in Britain, when children from wealthy households were kidnapped for “ransom while sleeping (nap)” (Tzanelli, 2009). Kidnapping is an infamous and malicious act committed by criminals with the intent of kidnapping and holding pupils captive for a ransom payment. Student kidnapping is a wicked, wicked, dreadful, and seasonal crime that threatens Nigeria’s security.Unemployed youth, gangsters, communal hooligans a.k.a. (Badoo), land grabbers, terrorists, ritualists, and spiritual fathers of various religious associations are among the perpetrators. Kidnapping has a long history in Nigeria as a reaction to young unemployment, poverty, corruption, inflation, moral decay, pessimism, and despair. Kidnappers select their victims depending on their financial capacity to pay for the kidnapping (Tzanelli, 2006). According to Turner (2008), the phenomenon originated in the Niger Delta as a liberation struggle by militants opposing the oil industry’s devastation of their environment. According to Demola (2011), kidnapping expatriate oil employees for large ransoms quickly developed into a money-making scheme. Kidnapping has become a regular occurrence since then, and it has expanded throughout Nigeria’s states. The epidemic of kidnapping in Nigeria has spread like a sickness. Kidnapping has become a lucrative profession for many young people, with some godfathers acting behind the scenes. People no longer close their eyes when sleeping. Kidnapping has posed severe security difficulties in Nigeria, since it has harmed schools and tarnished the country’s reputation. Student Kidnapping has become a profitable enterprise, similar to armed robbery. The pace of such a threat is increasing geometrically, while the security measures used to prevent it are increasing arithmetically. Kidnapping is a societal problem that has plagued Nigerian school children. Such a threat has been directed towards our pupils. Targeted kidnapping of school children began in 2014 with the mass abduction of 276 female students in Chibok by Boko Haram insurgents. That event was ideologically motivated, and designed to extort concessions from the government. The most recent school attack in Nigeria occurred on February 26, 2021, when gunmen abducted 279 schoolgirls from a government secondary school in Zamfara state’s northeastern region. A week earlier, 42 people were kidnapped in a school in Kagara, central Niger state, including 27 schoolboys. Recently, abductions have become more profit-driven, involving organized and unorganized criminal groups. Forcible removal of a kid from his or her family not only traumatizes the victim, but it also causes havoc in the lives of his or her parents, relatives, and community (Orset, 2008). One typical result of kidnapping that appeared particularly distressing for individuals involved, and which was brought up several times, was the absence of touch between many parents and their children while they were away. This was frequently due to the fact that the parent who was left behind was unaware of the children’s location (Freeman, 2006). Kidnapping exposes children to sexual abuse as well as the chance of developing sexually transmitted illnesses. Another pretense for sexual assault of stolen children is the forced marriage of underage victims to older men. According to Clark (2004), child brides marry older, more sexually experienced males with whom it is difficult to negotiate safe sexual behavior, particularly when under pressure to produce children. Aside from the psychological and physiological effects on the victim and his or her family, kidnapping also has significant economic and financial consequences. Poverty and youth unemployment, as well as social injustice and unequal distribution of the nation’s resources, are all powerful reasons for kidnapping in Nigeria, according to Ogabido (2009). As a result of these reasons, young people have turned to kidnapping and illegal actions in order to gain a piece of the country’s riches.


Statement Of Problem

People’s poor lifestyles have prompted many have-nots to engage in kidnapping operations in order to use the ransom money to meet their fundamental requirements. Our civilization has been plagued by poverty to the point that citizens are starving and living in poverty. One of the reasons why kidnapping in Nigeria is frequently related to youth unemployment is the problem of unemployment (Inyang, 2009). He presented the condition of unemployment in Nigeria using the well-known saying that “an idle man is the devil’s workshop.” He stated that there are a large number of able-bodied men and women walking the streets of Nigeria looking for work that does not exist. Many bored young people have turned to illegal actions, including kidnapping, as a result of dissatisfaction and rising duties to deal with. He did concede, however, that a graduate who is unable to find work is mentally deprived of alternative options for survival. In such circumstances, a young individual may acquire a bad attitude toward society and blame his failure on it. Kidnappings are frequently committed by people who are in severe economic and social situations. So, in a world where the gap between the affluent and the poor is expanding all the time, and when earning money in a legitimate way is frequently difficult to come by, kidnapping turns out to be a lucrative option to fall back on and to attract attention to what is seen as an unbearable condition. Some of the underlying reasons for kidnapping have been recognized as “moral degradation” and the “desire to be rich quick” mindset. Nobody inquires about how individuals get riches. The proliferation of weaponry as a result of political sponsorship of criminals abandoned after elections may indirectly encourage and exacerbate kidnapping.


Objective Of The Study

The following are the objective of the study

  1. To investigate the root cause of kidnapping in Nigeria
  2. To examine the psychological trauma this kidnapping has on school children
  3. To examine and proffer solutions that may help in reducing the kidnapping of school children in Nigeria

Research Questions

  1. What is the root cause of kidnapping in Nigeria?
  2. What is the psychological trauma kidnapping have on school children?
  3. What are the solutions that may help to reduce kidnapping of school children in Nigeria?

Significance Of The Study

In creating different ways to combat kidnapping, this study will be useful to the government, foreign governments, NGOs, communities, families, and vulnerable groups.


Scope Of The Study

Kidnapping is on the rise in Nigeria, and it affects people from all walks of life. The goal of this study is to look at how injustice, poverty, and unemployment promote school kidnappings and other crimes in Nigeria. This research will primarily focus on schools in Nigeria’s northwestern region.


Limitation Of The Study

During the course of this research, the researcher faced several important problems, including lack of funds, insufficient research resources, and time limitation.


Definition Of Terms

Poverty:

Poverty is the state of not having enough material possessions or income for a person’s basic needs

Unemployment:

Is persons above a specified age not being in paid employment or self-employment but currently available for work during the reference

Kidnapping:

Kidnapping is the unlawful transportation, and confinement of a person against their will.

Injustice:

Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes.


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Injustice, Poverty And Unemployment As Factors Fueling School Kidnappings And Other Criminalities In Nigeria

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