Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between ICT and performance of the health care facilities. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the extent to which ICT is used in healthcare facilities in Nigeria, to determine the key challenges in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthcare and to establish the relationship between the utilization of the ICTs and the performance of the healthcare facilities. Descriptive survey design was used in the study. The population for this study was organizations running healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Ten organizations running facilities that have adopted e-health systems were studied. A total of 5 respondents were randomly sampled from each of the organizations targeted. A total of 50 respondents were targeted by the study out of which 48 responded giving a response rate of 96%. Questionnaires were used as instruments for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages means and standard deviation was used to analyze the data. Inferential statistics such as regression and correlation analysis was used to test on the relationship between the variables of the study. On the extent of use of ICT in the provision of healthcare facilities, the study found that ICT had been used in the management of electronic health records to a large extent in managing patients’ records electronically and provision of back up in cases of emergency for patients’ records as indicated by 37.5% of the respondents. Regarding the challenges to the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare services, the study found that inadequate ICT infrastructure in the organization hinders service delivery to the healthcare subscribers (mean score 3.31) and that inadequate ICT infrastructure among the subscribers hinders their access to the healthcare services (mean score 3.31). Other challenges included: lack of technical knowhow, ineffective government policies and limited allocation of funds. On the relationship between the utilization of ICT and the performance of healthcare facilities, the findings from the regression analysis revealed that use of electronic health records, telemedicine, health information systems, the internet and mobile health explains 73.3% of the performance of healthcare facilities. The findings from correlation analysis further revealed that all variable tested had a positive relationship with the performance of healthcare facilities and were all significant at 95% confidence level. The study concluded that the use of electronic health records, telemedicine, health information systems, the internet and mobile health influences the performance of healthcare facilities. The study also recommends that organizations should train its staff and patients on the use of ICT in delivering and accessing healthcare services. This would improve the performance of healthcare facilities. The study finally recommends that another study be carried to assess the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare services in hospitals.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce and computer services (Wikipedia, 2015).

World population now exceeds six billion of which more than 4.7 billion reside in the developing world. As the population is increasing there is a need to find ways of improving efficiency and quality of health care delivery systems in developing countries especially in Nigeria where this research is conducted. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been identified as a vehicle with the potential to improve the quality of health care systems as well as the efficiency and service delivery of the health workers both in the developed and developing countries. Information and communication technologies have changed the face of the world we live in (Jensen, 1998).

ICT enables people to communicate with family, friends and colleagues around the world instantaneously, gain access to global libraries, information resources, and numerous other opportunities. ICT may also bring an improvement in health care service delivery systems. So, we may define information technology as one of the driving forces of globalization.

Since the year 2001, there has been a revolutionary growth in the telephony industry which is a major branch of information technology in Nigeria. This is expected to have permeated the health care institutions with significant positive impact on health care service delivery. Two years after the introduction of GSM in Nigeria, conducted an interview among medical practitioners in some Nigerian teaching hospitals to find out the current level of utilization of telephones for health care service delivery. They noted that medical experts use their personal mobile phones to facilitate patient care at their own expense. Neither the government nor hospital management had taken up the responsibility. Currently, the number of GSM service providers in the country has increased significantly and all of them keep rolling out several service options or packages including internet services with varying benefits to attract customers (Agboola, 2003). Although, A GSM based referral system was developed, validated and recommended for use in the primary health care centres. The extent to which the growth in telecommunication has impacted tertiary health care service delivery and how far this has enhanced the development of an ICT –driven health care practice in Nigeria is still to be known. This has necessitated the need for study into the relationship between information technology and service delivery in tertiary hospitals in River State.

The production of quality health-care service delivery in a country is guided by the level of the information technology infrastructure possessed and used by that country. A good information technology infrastructure, therefore, is a prerequisite for enhancing the well-being of a country. Gates (1999) reported that intra- and inter-organizational networks in some advanced countries function like a digital neural system of the organization. Thus, he inferred that information communication for health purposes has shifted from the largely manual or physical documentary method to digital communication. He further stated that such access to information technology has helped disseminate information to the rest of the world. American doctors are now able to collaborate as often and as quickly as they want with other medical doctors in other parts of the world through the use of information technology. For example, while examining a patient, a medical doctor might be able to send an electronic x-ray of a patient to a leading expert in another country who could readily interpret and provide more details of the disease or condition, as well as send feedback to the medical doctor all within a few minutes. Medical researchers, in their research and application processes, can use the Internet to identify research issues, search literature databases, seek out information on surveys and clinical trials, and published research results.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Several studies have reported on information technology use among medical and health workers reported that while information technology capabilities (personal computers, mobile phones, Internet) were available in Nigerian teaching hospitals, mobile phones were spreading fast. Information technology has greatly advanced the course of health delivery in advanced countries. It is also a known fact that computers and mobile phones were in use in all the teaching hospitals but not much Internet connectivity was available, meaning that most of the medical experts used external (non hospital) Internet services, such as cybercafés, for even rudimentary Internet access, such as e-mail. Several research further explained that while just 1.4% of the medical staff did not use the Internet in any fashion, the vast majority (70.7%) of those using the Internet did so only for e-mail. However, the researcher is examining the effect of information technology on service delivery in Nigerian Teaching hospitals


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study was to investigate the impact of the use of ICT on the performance of the health care facilities specifically to:

  1. To establish the extent to which ICT is used in healthcare facilities in Nigeria
  2. To determine the key challenges in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthcare.
  3. To Establish the relationship between the utilization of the ICTs and the performance of the healthcare facilities

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent to which ICT is used in healthcare facilities in Nigeria?
  2. Determine the key challenges in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthcare?
  3. Establish the relationship between the utilization of the ICTs and the performance of the healthcare facilities?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. Findings from this study will educate the administrators in the Nigeria health sector on the benefit of information technology on service delivery if applied in the tertiary hospitals.
  2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study on information technology and service delivery will cover the level of use of information technology based system in the tertiary hospitals in Rivers state considering its effect on health care service delivery.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

1. Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Information Technology:

The study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

Tertiary Hospitals:

A tertiary referral hospital (also called a tertiary hospital, tertiary referral center, or tertiary care center, or tertiary center) is a hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between ICT and performance of the health care facilities. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the extent to which ICT is used in healthcare facilities in Nigeria, to determine the key challenges in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthcare and to establish the relationship between the utilization of the ICTs and the performance of the healthcare facilities


5.2 Summary of Findings

5.2.1 The extent to which ICT is used in healthcare facilities in Nigeria

On the extent of use of ICT in the provision of healthcare facilities, the study found that ICT had been used in the management of electronic health records to a large extent in managing patients’ records electronically and provision of back up in cases of emergency for patients’ records as indicated by 37.5% of the respondents. The study also found that ICT had been used in telemedicine to share information between patients and healthcare providers to a large extent as indicated by 43.8% and in the provision of medical services from a distance as indicated by 31.3% of the respondents. In health information systems, the study found that ICT had been used to a large extent in checking quality by comparing perception of services delivered as indicated by 56.3% and in gathering information about patients as indicated by 31.3% of the respondents. The findings further revealed that internet was used to a large extent in carrying out research and training and that patients use the internet neutrally in gathering information as indicated by 18.8%. Finally, in mobile health, the study found that ICT was used to a very large extent in communicating with patients and in sharing patients’ information and indicated by 37.5% of the respondents.

5.2.2 Challenges to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in healthcare

Regarding the challenges to the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare services, the study found that inadequate ICT infrastructure in the organization hinders service delivery to the healthcare subscribers (mean score 3.31) and that inadequate ICT infrastructure among the subscribers hinders their access to the healthcare services (mean score 3.31). It was also found that most of the healthcare subscribers lack the technical knowhow on the use of ICT in accessing the healthcare services (Mean score 3.50). The study further found that ineffective government policies in the use ICT in the provision of healthcare services (Mean score of 3.31) and legislation on the access to personal information limits the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare services (mean score of 3.37). The study finally found that allocation of limited funds for health facilities in the organization limits the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare (Mean score of 3.69) and that limited funding is allocated to the construction of ICT infrastructure which hinder the provision of healthcare services (Mean score of 3.50).

5.2.3 Relationship between the utilization of the ICTs and the performance of the healthcare facilities

On the relationship between the utilization of ICT and the performance of healthcare facilities, the study found that the use of ICT had impacted on the quality of health through the use of internet for research to a very large extent as indicated by 50% and that it had made it easy to compare perceptions of services delivered with the expected standards leading to improvement to a large extent as indicated by 50% of the respondents. On medical errors and cost, the respondents indicated that the use of ICT reduces the cost of movement in search for healthcare services to a large extent as indicated by 37.5% and that the use of health information systems facilitates decision making to a very large extent as indicated by 43.8%.On the accessibility of medical records, the study found that the respondents indicated that the use of ICT facilitates accessibility to patients’ medical records to very large extent as indicated by 37.5% and that it provides back up in cases of emergency to a large extent as indicated by 43.8% of the respondents.

Finally, the study found that the use of ICT saves on time spent to access patients information to very large extent as indicated by 56.3% and that it saves on time spent to look for healthcare services to a very large extent as indicated by 50% of the respondents.

The findings from the regression analysis revealed that use of electronic health records, telemedicine, health information systems, the internet and mobile health explains 73.3% of the performance of healthcare facilities. The findings from correlation analysis further revealed that all variable tested had a positive relationship with the performance of healthcare facilities and were all significant at 95% confidence level.


5.3 Conclusion

From the study, it was concluded that the use of electronic health records, telemedicine, health information systems, the internet and mobile health influences the performance of healthcare facilities.

The study therefore concluded that ICT is used to a large extent in the management of health records where they provide back up in cases of emergency.

The study also concludes that ICT is used in telemedicine where it allows sharing of information between patients and healthcare providers.

The study further concludes that health information systems is used to large extent in checking quality by comparing perception of services delivered and gathering information about patients.

The study finally concludes that mobile health is used to a very large extent in communicating with patients and sharing patients’ information. This improves the quality of healthcare service delivery.


5.4 Recommendations

The following were the recommendations of the study:

The study recommends that organizations that have adopted the use of ICT in running healthcare facilities should develop health application that is a “one stop shop” for all health needs. This will improve the delivery of healthcare services.

The study further recommends that organizations should train its staff and patients on the use of ICT in delivering and accessing healthcare services. This would improve the performance of healthcare facilities.

The study also recommends that organizations providing e-health should services should explore more simple technologies which can be used by patients and staff to ensure quality service delivery. This will promote adoption resulting from simplicity of the technology.

The study finally recommends that more resources be allocated for ICT infrastructure.

This would improve the use of ICT in delivering and accessing healthcare services.


5.5 Recommendations for Further Research

The study was carried to investigate the relationship between ICT and performance of the health care facilities. The researcher therefore recommends that another study be carried to assess the use of ICT in the provision of healthcare services in hospitals.

The study also recommends that another study be done on the preparedness of public hospitals in Nigeria for the adoption of e-health technology which was not the concern of this study.


Complete Material For Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦3,000 to any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current
Zenith BankAccount No.: 1225513212
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  • Payment Details
  • Email Address 
  • Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Information Technology And Services Delivery In Nigeria” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.