Information Imbalance And Its Implications On Third World Nations (A Case Study Of Nigeria)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Information Imbalance And Its Implications On Third World Nations (A Case Study Of Nigeria)


Abstract


The main purpose this project is to expose the Imbalance rate of Information on the Third World Nations (A case study of Nigeria). Survey methods were adopted for the analysis of data and the instrument employed was the questionnaire method. After analyzing the data, the finding revealed that the rate of information imbalance on Nigerians is indeed cancerous and is eating down our country (i.e. if we are not informed then we are deformed) thereby causing a mirage of excess in our country.

The  research recommends that all hands should be on the deck for the eradication of this cancerous act in our society and also government should try as much a possible to put in place media stations with equipped facilities that will make information to be distributed all over the country no matter the locality.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certifications page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Scope / Limitation of study
  • 1.7 Assumptions
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms.

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Sources of literature
  • 2.3 Development communication defined
  • 2.4 The news flow controversy
  • 2.5 Debate on the new World Information and Communication Order (NWICO).

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Method
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Research Sample
  • 3.4 Data Collection
  • 3.5 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.6 Summary.

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Analysis and Results

  • 4.1 Data Analysis
  • 4.2 Research Questions
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary and Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The debate on information imbalance and its implication on the third world nations have been controversial as well as perplexing and intriguing.

In the last one decade in particular, whatever hopes raised by some initiatives aimed at mitigating the African  and  the third world under development  have dwindled to the very last as the world emerged from the cold war into a more  problematic concept called globalization – Lamido (2001:50).

The national liberation movements of various African nations have yielded political independence for most African countries is undoubted. Ironically, however the grip of the erstwhile dominant nations on the neck of their former colonies on areas of economy information and technology is still palpable several years after political independence.

The political independence that does not liberate the nations from the tutelage of economic communication, cultural and technological dependency only translates into a mockery of the semantic expression “independence”.

According to W.A Hatchens (2004:40) for a hundred young states that came into existence after the World War II. The end of our century marks a new stage in the fight for a real independence new stage in the fight for a real independence political field, but also in the spheres of economy information and culture.

Consequently, innovations in the technological, social, political and economic sphere in our contemporary world have lent credence to the symbols of logo of the limited nations depicts humanity from the world globe has been derived the phenomenon globalization, which explicitly connotes a world without (national) border hence, the initiator of the concept, Marshall (2002; 15) refers the world as a global village where time cease to exist and boundaries have collapsed.

In the global village where the dominant west is the head, there has emerged the struggle for a new independence by the les powerful nations in recent times. First, the third world demanded for a new international economic order, which was followed by the new world information and communication order. When the global economic and information structure was unfavourable to the third world, there was no option but to become apprehensive, the reality of the growing imbalance has given rise to considerable apprehension about their fate in the new millennium. This is justified sufficient by Lamide (2001:10) as being:

‘A natural occurrence given that the past millennium was far most of these countries characterized by extreme poverty heavy indebtedness was of attrition and the resultant mass ordeal and anguish both for it’s immediate and distant victims, absolute vulnerability to epidemics, the rage of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the scourge of natural disasters, serious technological backwardness, profound economic decline and infrastructural decay (the punch September 26, 2000 page 34).’

With this arrangement, the third world are getting increasingly  weary of the information available to their citizen, the treatment of such information and how events about them are being reported to the outside world it was based on this spirit that the third world countries called  for a New World Information And Communication Order (NWICO). The thrust of NWICO is hinged on two propositions.

  1. That communication has become an exchange between two unequal protagonist  without necessity lowing  to compete but instead  allows  the predominance of the powerful, the richer and the better equipped to continue  to monopolies, the flow of communication” consequently , what is known, as  information is infact a one way flow rather  than a genuine exchange of information between two
  2. That the quantity of new about developing countries carried by developed countries is then and of negative quality. It is this monopoly and imbalance of information and communication flow and s orders perpetuates by western powers that P.O.J. Umechukwu (2000:5) termed information imbalance, which interestedly has grievous information imbalance for the third world.

The big news agencies that are at the vanguard of the perpetration of information imbalance below to the western countries. These media are agency France press (A.F.P) of France, Reuters of Britain, associated press (AP) and united pres international (UPI) of the United States. Western nations, through the activities of these bys big four, have turned third world nations into a “media colony”.

According to R.L Bishop (200:62) “the four are a tightly knit group of professional so to speak at their mercy and can direct if no manipulate them at will.

On the other hand, Africa has been in the force of the agitation to redress the unfortunate imbalance. She has been aided by the privilege of having had four representatives out of the sixteen members’ commission for the study of international communication problems. She also used the advantages of her size under the then forum of the non aligned nations to draw the world’s attention to the imbalance cause. These have been remarkable additions to her efforts in making the subject a prime issue of concern to UNESCO.

Among Africa nations Nigeria’s position is that of an Iroko in Savannah forest in the regions many voices of protest against the domination of international news flow by the developed nations. In translating their desires into a meaningful programme, the government of Nigeria  established the news  agency of Nigeria  (NAN) S.A Ekwelie (2000:23) in supporting this development, points out that… inspire of the confrontations and clashes here and there  the establishment of NAN will remain memorable as one of the seemingly  positive  development affecting the media  in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement Of The Problems

For some decades new, so much heat has been generated by developing countries (Nigeria) on the ground that the western media coverage on them the developing countries has been terribly inadequate. Worst  still, the little coverage done on these developing countries by the western media has often been observed to be done hot on good light. They include such reports on famine, drought, war, violence,  outbreak of epidemic and crisis  etc, as if some thing good  never ever happened in developing country of Nigeria, down here in Africa, which constitutes  the main  component of some of the  developing countries the same disturbing mode  of western media coverage is what is equally exhibited by the western media.


1.3 Objective of The Study

Immediate causes of the information imbalance controversy and brings into light the perspective of both poles involved in the debate.

  1. It will also afford one of the opportunity of grasping authoritatively the implications one way  information flow on the socio- cult, political,  economic and religions  development  of third world country especially Nigeria as well as it’s implication on the  free flow of information concept  as argued by the western world led by the united states and Britain.
  2. The study is aimed at collecting and collating the various views and perspectives, professional, government and non- government organization and agencies on the information flow and controversy as well as the views of individuals.
  3. It will also enable one to understand whether focus on international news flow imbalance is on television, radio and satellite transmission excluding the studying and research on the impact of videos and films in the cult third world countries.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

At the end of the study, we would be in a better position to contribute to the debate on broader perspectives, proffering, suggestions and solution to the controversial information imbalance debate and the need for a new world information and communication order (NWICO).

This work is the contribution of the researcher in the correction of news flow imbalance and will be an added impetus in the struggle for the emergency of solution to the great debate.


1.5 Research Questions

The basic research questions are;

  1. Does there really exist information imbalance in the world?
  2. What are the implications of this imbalance on the third world countries?
  3. What are the third worlds efforts at correcting?
  4. Are the arguments on information imbalance a gross negation of free flow of information concept?

1.6 Scope / Delimitation Of The Study

The study “the role of effective communication in assessment of imbalance information” is centered only in Imo State environmental protection agency in Owerri.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Time:

In research of this types, a lot of time by given  the short time allowed for this study’ it was not possible to do all that was required.

Resources:

For the reason that I have no source of my own income where to obtain funds, collect enough data but the research, work will be at normal.

Location:

These were a very big problem due to some certain factors, like moving from the company to the communication.


1.8 Assumptions

The basic  assumption is that apparent extremist and  parallel  nature of the western and third world  perspectives on the global information  flow controversy, as well as most of the issues involved  makes it unrealistic for us to believe that we can remove the obvious and seemingly natural bipolarize in world information flow without affecting some change in the current  international political arrangement.

The existence of information imbalance as argued by the third world countries are real and that the new world information and communication order as requested by the third world will affect some free flow of information concept as argued by the west.

The socio- cultural, political, religious and  economic independence of the third  world countries is highly jeopardized b the news and information emanating  from the highly technological  advanced media  of the western world.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Assessment:

This is an opinion or a judgment about something that has been thought about very carefully.

Operational Meaning:

It also means to evaluate the value of something.

Imbalance:

A situation in which two or more things are not the same size.

Operational Meaning:

It means when something lack balance.

Third World:

This simply refers to the poor or developing countries of Africa.

Operational Meaning:

It is those countries or nation that are not dependent but with the assistance of other country for survival.

Implication:

A possible effect or result of an action or a decision. It also means the end result or the outcome of any thing.

Information:

Sending, giving or exchange of ideas.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary And Conclusion

On our analysis of the demand for a new world information and communication order (NWICO) an elaborate pans had been made to present the two diametrically opposing sides argument for or against the demand with the united state and her alloes and the third world countries and her allies (the then united state for soviet union republic (USSR) and the UNESCO forum on the center of the debate and dialogue, still savoring from the gains and losses of the demand both side especially with the demise of the united state for soviet union republic (USSR) and the end of cold war have all retreated tactically to take stock of their gains and losses, while at the same time refurbishing and re-organizing their information machinery to achieve stated aims and objectives.

The researcher has also succeeded in proving that the socio – political, economic, cultural, religious and ideological development of African countries is being affected heavily by the false and distorted information that emanates from the western media.

African countries have had stunted growth because of no- colonialism, poor leadership, poor economic base and poor ideological base, which has made nonsense of the enormous wealth flowing in African countries.

The development of individuals starts with the development of the mind and since the western world through films and videos have prejudiced the minds of African from kindergarten to adulthood to be hoodroruked to the culture of the western world which tend to make us look at the culture and belief of the African countries as being inferior to the western culture.

Our traditional method vis – a vis culture, marriage institution, family institution, traditional learning process and religious beliefs, norms and value have all being reduced to the rubbles in the bid to accept the cheap flamboyant, deceitful norms value, life styles, culture and beliefs of the western world.

All these tend to destroy the mind, which is the base for the development of the individuals necessary or any visible and meaningful national growth and development.

As Udoakah (2000:20) rightly stated development is freeing men from nature servitudes, from economic backwardness and oppressive technological institution from unjust class structure and political exploitation, from cultural and psychic alienation in short all of lives in human agencies. What this means in this perspective is that development implies a process whereby the overall personalities of the people are rehabilitated and strengthening. It is the development of mankind as it is the development of a material living condition, also means a particular form of social change. Meaning improved living conditions.

With this behind our minds and the knowledge of the role of mass media in national development one understands the implications of the third world especially Nigeria.

In an organization that information imbalance exist, there is bound to the social mistrust, misinterpretation and mis- information and this is capable of running down such an organization.

Applying this to global news Information Imbalance the danger inherent in the information imbalance becomes very clear and loud and is therefore worthy of resistance.

The focus is on the mass media or communication environment of national development viewed as an institution that need to be properly developed and managed so that it can contribute efficiently to the country national development. Much emphasizes has been laid on the concept of national sovereignty and the development process, the influence of global economic and politics in which the socio- political economic system determines the course of development within each nation in the international system and the importance of mass media and its message in national development.

This goes to confirm the belief that the media serves as agent of social mobilization and change pace setters and trailblazers, educator, informers, horizon wideness and raisers of aspiration. They act also as agents of national development by assisting in ensuring that the audience is kept abreast of the activities of government and what is happening in the society.

Thus, the African audience when exposed to the message from western media which is not a consonance with the objectives goal, values and aspirations of government of African countries such as Nigeria will tend to have a dis-like of the activity of home government.

While the western world also see any change in the flow of information as a gross legation of free and unrestricted access to information principles, he respondent refuse and rather appealed that the tempo and gains made so far in the debate should be pursued with vigor.


5.2 Recommendations

Attempts had earlier been made through the discussion on the proceeding chapter to understand what is to be done to understand what is to be done to remedy this ugly situation.

  1. Re- positioning of priorities: The government of Nigeria should understand the importance of vibrant and efficient mass –media.
  2. A Minimum disintegration and inter- dependence model Nwosu (2000:12): This suggest that the African countries such as Nigeria should try to fashion out a system of partially disintegrating themselves from the strange hold of the powerful western press and also working in close partnership with them for efficient coverage of the entire world on equal bases.
  3. Setting up cooperative regional national and continental news agencies, this will ensure effective relationship among the third world specially African news agencies (NAN) should serve as an example.
  4. Democratization: It is my conviction that military rule, dictatorship will not auger well for the development of the media as the press operate under hash condition and are always on the fear of imprisonment, culture and even death.
  5. Provision of stable political and economic base: The finance for running efficient mass media organization or news agency is enormous the instability run government which is turn leads to economy, affects the development of the media. The advantages of the western world are dependent on solely her technological and economic prowess.
  6. Indigenous manufacture of communication gadgets facilities: This will enable us have those facilities suitable to our hot and harsh environment and will stand the test of time.
  7. Reorientation of our rules: According to Witler Maram, two hostile newspapers is stronger than a thousand beyond there had ever been any love lost between the government and the press. As long as continues to people will always look up to the western media for information about this country, as media practitioners in the African country, cannot tell the audience the truth. Our leaders should look at the press as friend rather then a foe and be ready to accept constructive criticism.
  8. African countries such as Nigeria should review these restrictions on importation of information materials and create enabling environment for the press to operate especially the repeating of dracoman decrees that tend to gag the press. Also government should stop censoring the press and provide an enabling environment for their operations.
  9. Establishment of Films Companies: There should be established films and video producing companies or the encourage of public producers that will produce movies on African cultures and values. This will produce the negative effect of the large number of foreign films imported into the country, which tend to destroy our traditional values, beliefs, cultures and norms.
  10. African countries should match the demand for a change with a realistic approach such as political economic, information and culture independence and re-organization as well as restructure the present international political and information system structurally materially, economically, ideologically and in the many other ways.

Information Imbalance And Its Implications On Third World Nations (A Case Study Of Nigeria)


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