Information and Communication Technology (ICT) As A Tool For Creating Job Opportunities In Nigeria

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) As A Tool For Creating Job Opportunities In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examined information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for creating job opportunities in Nigeria. The study was specifically set to find out whether the adoption of ICT in the corporate world has generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria, find out whether the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens, find out the extent the entrepreneurial competencies and opportunities within the ICT sector is being harnessed to create more employment opportunities in Nigeria, and find out the extent the application of information and communication technology will address the problems of unemployment in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of staff of Federal Ministry of Labour and Employment, Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the adoption of ICT in the corporate world has generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria. Further findings showed that the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens. Therefore, it is recommended that the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens. And teaching of ICT should be included in the school curriculum of both primary and secondary schools so as to get the youth abreast of ICT application at early stage. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool for gaining competitive advantage in the corporate world and as such has been integrated into the operations of most high performing organizations in every economy. A recent policy note released by the World Bank says that information and communication technologies (ICTs) are transforming the world of work, creating new job opportunities and making labour markets more innovative, inclusive, and global. ICTs are influencing employment both as an industry that creates jobs and as a tool that empowers workers to access new forms of work, in new and more flexible ways (Samuelson, 2008). The emerging ICT-enabled employment opportunities matter because countries around the world are looking to create more good jobs, which have positive economic and social implications for workers and for society. ICT is critical to Nigeria’s quest to becoming one of the leading economies in the next five years.

In any economic setting, the level of technology determines the level of economic growth. Technology is known for its ability to improve the way things are done in the past in order to achieve better output. Indeed, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is changing everything and we must respond to this innovation. It is only through the appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that the poor and the unemployed can be engaged all the year round. Nigeria being a poor country and in recognition of the need to create jobs for the unemployed and tackle poverty, has mapped our programmes aimed at alleviating poverty among her citizens through effective use of ICT.

Within the last few years, Nigeria has been witnessing rapid and accelerating advent of information and Communication Technology which is so powerful, novel, widespread and influential, that one may even refer to it as era of industrial revolution. Information Technology has been recognized by the Federal Government as a veritable tool for poverty alleviation. This is because no nation can grow economically if poverty is persistent. (Idih, 2002). Information Technology has always come with massive job cuts in developing countries like Nigeria. It creates new types of jobs and new wealth within the economy. This could create socioeconomic problems especially if the economy has many cases of unemployment and under unemployment. On the other hand, employment success, job attractiveness and salary levels appear to be greater for students and individuals with more extensive Information Technology related education (Boritz, 2001).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Employment opportunities for the Nigerian citizens have direct link to their socio-economic lives. More so, it enhances safe and egalitarian society. However, Nigeria in recent time have been threatened with alarming scenario as a result of unemployment which resultant effects ranges from extreme poverty, hunger to insecurity. Unemployment rate measures the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force.

The unemployment rate in Nigeria is not only worrisome but also alarming and shows that government cannot tackle it alone. Therefore, exploring the corporate and vocational opportunities in Information and Communication Technology devices such as full range of computers, phones and telecommunication gadgets, etc., sales and services purpose, application software development would be able to tackle the problem of unemployment in Nigeria. Consequently, the application of Information and Communication Technology have not be vigorously harnessed to its fullest despite its perceived vocational and wealth creation opportunities.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for creating job opportunities in Nigeria.

Specifically, the study will;

  1. Find out whether the adoption of ICT in the corporate world has generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria.
  2. Find out whether the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens.
  3. Find out the extent the entrepreneurial competencies and opportunities within the ICT sector is being harnessed to create more employment opportunities in Nigeria.
  4. Find out the extent the application of information and communication technology will address the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. Has the adoption of ICT in the corporate world generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria?
  2. Has the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens?
  3. To what extent are the entrepreneurial competencies and opportunities within the ICT sector being harnessed to create more employment opportunities in Nigeria?
  4. To what extent can the application of information and communication technology address the problems of unemployment in Nigeria?

1.5 Research hypothesis

  • Ho: The adoption of ICT in Nigeria does not create employment opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria.
  • Ha: The adoption of ICT in Nigeria creates employment opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Outcome of this study will be a useful guide for the general public especially Nigerian teaming unemployed youths on how they can tap into the advent of Information communication and technology (ICT) for the purpose of creating self employment.

This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the examining information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for creating job opportunities in Nigeria. The study will be carried out in Abuja FCT of Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Federal Ministry of Labour and Employment, Abuja.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Information and Communication Technology (ICT):

This is a concept, a method, a process and a system of collecting, analyzing, processing and sharing information using electronic equipment or technological tools.

Employment Generation:

This refers simply to creation of job opportunities either through entrepreneurial ventures or government empowerment schemes etc


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for creating job opportunities in Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for creating job opportunities in Nigeria. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether the adoption of ICT in the corporate world has generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria, find out whether the adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens, find out the extent the entrepreneurial competencies and opportunities within the ICT sector is being harnessed to create more employment opportunities in Nigeria, and find out the extent the application of information and communication technology will address the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Federal Ministry of Labour and Employment, Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The adoption of ICT in the corporate world has generated more job opportunities for the unemployed in Nigeria.
  2. The adoption of information and communication technology in training institutions has offered sustainable vocational skills to the Nigerian citizens.
  3. The entrepreneurial competencies and opportunities within the ICT sector has not been adequately harnessed to create more employment opportunities in Nigeria.
  4. The application of information and communication technology can help to address the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. The Federal and State Governments must implement a long-term ICT Human Capital Development Policy. Education curriculum at all levels must be revised to become more ICT centric, and an ICT Work-Force assistance program should emerge to retrain unemployed and underemployed graduates.
  2. Teaching of ICT should be included in the school curriculum of both primary and secondary schools so as to get the youth abreast of ICT application at early stage.
  3. Individuals especially youths on their part, should be personally committed to ICT education and making effective use of ICT for personal and national development.
  4. Efforts should also be made by Nigerian government to equip all sectors of the economy with ICT equipment to enhance service delivery.
  5. ICT infrastructures should be upgraded and the neglected ones replaced so as to encourage the use of ICT.
  6. The funding of ICT should be encouraged through public private partnership because government cannot do it along.

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