Influence Of Workplace Diversity On Employees Productivity

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Influence Of Workplace Diversity On Employees Productivity


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity using Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine whether there is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity, identify the workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization, and ascertain the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity in an organization. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of junior and senior staff of Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity. Furthermore the study revealed that the workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization includes; age diversity, gender diversity, ethnic diversity, educational diversity, and value diversity. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be an effective diversity management program that appreciates every diversity. The ultimate goal of the management strategy program should be to create a stimulating environment that maximizes on advantages of diversity as well as minimizing the negative effects of diversity. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The work environment is becoming more complex due to globalization and competition which as a result has necessitated the need for employees that are made up of people with varying ages, experience, knowledge and backgrounds to maximize competitive advantage (Akinnusi et al., 2017). According to Akinnusi et al. (2017), organizations that want to gain competitive advantage must widen their perspective on workplace diversity and diversity management, and the management must commit itself to ensuring that diversity management is part of its daily operations. Nigeria is known to be the giant of Africa with a population of over 180 million people and more than half the population consists of people of working age (Akinnusi et al., 2017; Ohunakin et al., 2019). Hence, there is a large pool of talent from which organizations draw to achieve their goals. To manage the workplace, managers have created diversity policies that are in line with the Labour Act and other laws that have input in place to protect all kinds of employees from discrimination because of his/her social categorization (Kundu & Mor, 2017). However, (Goswami & Goswami, 2018) opined that some organizations in a bit to escape lawsuits or other legal actions and to also put on a public show that makes them gain a good corporate image, pretend to embrace diversity rather than show a genuine desire for it by demonstrating a true commitment to the principles of diversity and inclusion.

Makhdoomi & Nika (2017) said so long as individuals with differences work in the same environment, diversity in the workplace will always be an issue. Though our differences can promote creativity and increase satisfaction at work nonetheless, they can be the root of conflict and frustration between groups (Makhdoomi & Nika, 2017). Hence, some organization leaders have failed to understand how the workplace interacts with one another as individuals and as groups, and how the behaviour of the workplace can affect both employee and organizational performance (Makhdoomi & Nika, 2017; Ng & Sears, 2020). Performance is affected when managers fail to understand diversity and are not skilled enough to manage issues of diversity (Ng & Sears, 2020). Another problem is the issue of organizations still depending on the old programs that they have been using over the years to manage the present issues of workplace diversity, minimize bias and increase diversity and inclusion in the workplace. It is important for management to know that the diversity plan that works or is encouraged by one organization may not work in another as it may be challenged by the hierarchical structure that is present in such an organization. For this reason, some organizational leaders lack the knowledge on how to effectively manage diversity, create an inclusive environment and what strategies to employ to assist them in dealing with issues of diversity in the organization.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Workforce diversity is a key factor that has an impact on employee performance (Khan, 2019). To enhance employee performance and productivity, many companies are now focused on managing workforce diversity. Most of today’s organizations struggle because they are inefficient to galvanize a diverse workforce to function as a team in terms of managing several dimensions, policymaking, training, visibility, and approach to clear and overall goals. Organizations that consider diversity as part of their main strategy will profit much more than the organization that does not and will profit from cost savings in turnover and improved sales (Brown, 2008). These discussions indicate that the study dealing with the effect on employee performance of workforce diversity is of greater significance. Workforce diversity awareness can assist current managers in evaluating the effect on employee performance with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, and the effect of other variables of diversity.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity. Specifically the study will;

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity.
  2. Identify the workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization.
  3. Ascertain the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity in an organization.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following question

  1. Is there a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity?
  2. What are the workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization.
  3. What is the implication of workplace diversity on employees productivity in an organization.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Workplace diversity has been well researched, however, it has not been specified what influence workplace diversity has on employee performance in institutions. This study focused on the relationship between workplace diversity and employee performance. This study is important as it examined whether or not everyone is treated fairly, as well as problems that arose; in this way they could be corrected and a better working and learning environment sought. Therefore, this study allows institutions to see the influence that workplace diversity has on employee performance and therefore enables institutions to improve.


1.7 Scope of the Study

Broadly, this study focuses on investigate influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity. The study will be carried out in Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited to extention workers as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other aspect of agriculture. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Diversity: Diversity refers to the existence of a workforce in which individuals come from different socio-cultural and religious backgrounds.
Employee performance can be defined as how employees behave in an organisation, as well as how they efficiently they perform their duties and complete work that has been delegated to them


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity using Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity using Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at to determine whether there is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity, identify the workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization, and ascertain the influence of workplace diversity on employees productivity in an organization.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were junior and senior staff of Unilever Nigeria PLC. Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between workplace diversity and employees productivity.
  2. The workplace diversities which influences employees productivity in an organization includes; age diversity, gender diversity, ethnic diversity, educational diversity, and value diversity.
  3. Workplace diversity influences employees productivity in an organization as it influences employees commitment, influences effective communication among employees, influences team work, and influences employees effectiveness.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There should be an effective diversity management program that appreciates every diversity. The ultimate goal of the management strategy program should be to create a stimulating environment that maximizes on advantages of diversity as well as minimizing the negative effects of diversity.
  2. Employees are regularly faced with diversity challenges. Organizations needs to provide support channels where employees feel comfortable to discuss their issues without feeling victimised or thinking that their jobs may be threatened.
  3. Employees should be encouraged to communicate with each other regularly. This will allow for an informal way to build relationships. All members of staff may learn from each other based on their different backgrounds.

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