The Influence Of Working Environment On Teachers’ Turnover In Public Primary School

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Influence Of Working Environment On Teachers’ Turnover In Public Primary School


Abstract


The aim of this study is to examine the influence of working environment on teachers’ turnover in public primary school using Abeokuta LGA in Ogun State as a case study. Survey research design and Convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from where all respondent are teachers from the four(4) selected secondary school in Abeokuta South LG in Ogun State. table and frequency was using to analyze data which provided answers to the research question. Findings of the study reveals that the work environment factors such as physical environment, poor infrastructural facilities, low salaries and fringe benefit affects the productivity of teachers. The study therefore recommends that It is recommended that the teachers work environment in rural primary schools should be improved so as to attract and retain teachers in rural primary schools. Besides salaries and wages, the work environment should be made more conducive for academic work.Salaries should, however, be made attractive for the teacher to be able to take good care of themselves and their families without working elsewhere to make ends meet. Their salaries and allowances should be paid as at when due.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Retention of valuable employees is a global challenge. Managers and top level authorities are constantly met with the issue of retaining employees, and there is a wealth of evidence that worldwide, retention of skilled employees has been of serious concern to managers in the face of ever increasing high rate of employee turnover (Samuel & Chipunza, 2009). In recent years, the focus of research on HRM has shifted from study and relationship of individual Human Resource Management (HRM) practices on business performance to entire HRM system and its influence on labor turnover (Khan, 2010).

Employee retention is an increasingly important challenge for organizations as the age of the knowledge worker unfolds (Lumley, 2011). Presently the labour market belongs to employees, because talented candidates in the global job skills market have the luxury of choice (Harris, 2007). Cascio (2006) also affirms that the costs associated with recruiting, selecting, and training new employees often exceed 100% of the annual salary for the position being filled. Thus, every turnover of skilful employees come at a cost and the combined direct and indirect costs associated with one employee leaving ranges from a minimum of one year’s pay and benefits to something more substantial. Also, when knowledgeable employees leave an organization, the consequences go far beyond the substantial costs of recruiting and integrating replacements. Consequently, most employers are seeking better ways to manage turnover in order to retain valued human resources as well as sustain competition and high performance.

Employees’ turnover is defined as employees ‘mobility towards organization and outwards organization (Rains 2008). Employees’ turnover outside the organization is considered as one of the motivational problem facing many organizations in the developed and developing world (Armstrong, 2009). Basically, there are two types of employees’ turnover. These are known as voluntary employees’ turnover and involuntary employees’ turnover. Voluntary employees’ turnover is employees ‘turnover which is done willingly by an employee whereby involuntary employees’ turnover is the turnover which is done by employees unwillingly. According to Rains (2008) the standard voluntary turnover is measured into three standard level namely high turnover 25%, moderate turnover 9% and low turnover 2% (Human Capital Index Report, 2005). According to Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2008) the standard average of labour turnover in the developed countries particularly United States of America was 3.3% in the 2000s.

Improving pupils’ learning is an obligation of policy makers, administrators, teachers, parents, students and members of the wider community. While each of these groups has an important contribution to make. What teachers do mediates the effects of almost all such contributions. And what teachers do depends on their motivations, capacities, and the conditions under which they work. (Leithwood 2006).

In delivering high-quality education, schools must attract, develop, and retain teachers. Working environments play an important role in a school’s ability to do so. Schools that are able to offer their teachers a safe, pleasant, and supportive working environment and adequate compensation are better able to attract and retain good teachers and motivate them to do their best. Teachers’ working environment is important to students as well as teachers because it affects how much individual attention teachers can give to students (Sumra, 2004). Large class sizes or disruptive students, for example, can make both teachings and learn difficulty. Working environment involves the physical geographical location as well as immediate surroundings of the workplace, such as a construction, site or office building. Typically this involves other factors relating to the place of employment such as quality of air, noises, lever and additional Perks and benefits of employment (Sumra, 2004).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The teaching environment is a major factor that determines not only the learning process but also the performance of students. The effectiveness of rural schools in producing quality graduates, therefore, lies in a good teaching environment (UNESCO 2011).

Despite the growing rate of un-employment in Tanzania and several steps made by the government to improve working conditions and centralizing recruitment process, there has been growing rate of limited teachers working in rural areas (Gayno, 1998).

The government has established a recruitment system under section 11(a) of the Public Service (Amendment) Act, Act No. 18 of 2007. Although the recruitment system seems to be effective, the recruited civil servants for rural areas are still not reporting in their working stations. It is very common that, nowday’s teachers deployed in the rural areas to tender application for transfer using several reasons including medical reasons, family problems, ongoing studies etc (Mukyanuzi and Bennel, 2005).

According to Mukyanuzi and Bennel (2005), there is a growing gap of teachers working in rural areas and those working in urban areas, which creates work load in rural areas as among the challenges of work life management. Many people and teachers are blaming the government for failure to supply and facilitate the Local Government Authorities in creating conducive environment and well managed working conditions to rural areas (URT, 2014).

The reasons could be lack of motivational factors as indicated by Upendo (2011) that teachers’ turnover in rural areas is influenced by poor infrastructure, big classes sizes, poor working conditions and few number of classrooms. Others were shortage of teachers’ housing facilities, poor transportation infrastructure, shortage of clean water, lack of electricity and many other social facilities. According to URT (2014), there is decreasing number of teaches reported in rural areas for the first appointment and those who are refusing when transferred.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of working environment on teachers’ turnover in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.

The specific objective of this study include the following:

  1. To ascertain the prevalence of teachers’ turnover in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.
  2. To find out the nature of working environment in in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.
  3. To examine if working environment affects the job satisfaction of teachers in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.
  4. To determine the causes of teachers’ poor working environment in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.
  5. To investigate the impact teachers’ poor working environment on the academic performance of students in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The relevant research questions related to this study include the following:

  1. Is there a prevalence of teachers’ turnover in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA?
  2. What is the nature of working environment in in public primary school in Abeokuta LG?
  3. Does working environment affects the job satisfaction of teachers in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA?
  4. What are the causes of teachers’ poor working environment in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA?
  5. Does teachers’ poor working environment have an impact on the academic performance of students in public primary school in Abeokuta LGA?

1.5 Significance of Study

This study provide the insight on how better teaching and learning environment can be improved to enhance teachers productivity. The study is expected to help in identifying the factors employees/teachers face at work which leads them to move in and out of their jobs. This information is hoped to assist policy makers come up with recommendations that to arrest the situation. The study was also to help in policy adjustments concerning teachers and teacher recruitment in public schools. Through this study the policy marker would get input of how to make teachers stay in their carrier by modifying those areas which seen to be problematic. The study were also hoped to widen knowledge concerning different causes of employee turnover and other issues that may be causing this problem of teachers‘ turnover in public secondary schools. The study finally hoped to improve school performance in line with teachers‘ turnover in public secondary schools.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers on the influence of working environment on teachers’ turnover in public primary school. It will ascertain the prevalence of teachers’ turnover in public primary school . It will find out the nature of working environment in in public primary school. It will examine if working environment affects the job satisfaction of teachers in public primary school. It will determine the causes of teachers’ poor working environment in public primary schools. It will investigate the impact teachers’ poor working environment on the academic performance of students in public primary school. However the study is limited to Abeokuta Local Government in Ogun State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study faced the following limitation: Sources of fund was a problem which limited to get sufficient fund to accomplish the work, as a result in data collected and information gathered were some how insufficient. The second was time, due to limited time to accomplish the work; it was difficult to cover the whole area, that is why few schools were selected to represent the entire area and few people were selected to present the entire population.

Lastly was the the unwillingness of some of respondents to cooperate with the researcher in giving reliable information limited the researcher to adhere to the scheduled time.


1.8 Definition of Term

Working Environment:

Work Environment is the whole of settings under which an individual or organisation execute their duties. There are different categories of the work environment. Some of the categories are the physical environment, human environment and relationship with colleagues and administrators, interaction within the system and the general area of the work climate (Nakpodia, 2011)

Productivity:

Productivity is the efficiency of production of goods or services expressed by some measure. Measurements of productivity are often expressed as a ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input, typically over a specific period of time

Effective Teaching:

Effective teaching can be defined in many ways including teacher behavior (warmth, civility, clarity), teacher knowledge (of subject matter, of students), teacher beliefs, and so forth.

Academic Performance:

Academic Performance refers to achievement in standardised test or examination shown by students. Academic performance of the students in this study is assessed by the use of teachers’ ratings, tests, and examinations. The academic performance regarded in this study is standard four and standard seven national examination results and the ability of standard three students‟ basic cognitive skills (writing, reading and counting skills)


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into “influence of working environment on teachers’ turnover in public primary school using Abeokuta LGA in Ogun State as case study”. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions and recommendations .


5.1 Summary of Study

The aim of this study is to examine the influence of working environment on teachers’ turnover in public primary school usign Abeokuta LGA in Ogun State as a case study. It ascertained the prevalence of teachers’ turnover in public primary school . It found out the nature of working environment in in public primary school. It examined if working environment affects the job satisfaction of teachers in public primary school. It determined the causes of teachers’ poor working environment in public primary schools. Survey research design and Convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from where all respondent are teachers from the four(4) selected secondary school in abeokuta South LG in Ogun State. table and frequency was using to analyze data which provided answers to the research question.


5.2 Conclusion

On the basis of this research results several conclusions are drawn

The study found that there is a need for the government to establish good plans on the distribution of teachers for both urban and rural areas so as to balance the workloads in Ogun State rural and urban public primary schools.

Through a proper human resource distribution plan, the teachers‟ workload would be balanced in both urban and rural areas. There was great need of motivation measures and improving the salaries of the rural public primary schools teachers as the way to improve their job satisfaction and morale.

Good strategies were needed to retain teachers in rural areas so as to improve efficiency and reduce teachers’ workload which subsequently lead to poor students’ performance.

Good teaching working environment (as the availability of houses, staffrooms, washrooms and other school infrastructures) were contributing to teacher‟s self-motivation, moral and creativity in performing their work properly.

A teacher needs a range of conditions so as to boost their working energy and to use their environment to improve learning.


5.3 Recommendation

Recommendation Based on the findings of the study and conclusion, the following recommendation is made:

  1. To ensure the quality of education provision between rural and urban schools, rural schools should be provided with adequate resources such as teachers, teaching and learning materials, teachers houses, staff rooms and classrooms as well as improved learning infrastructures.
  2. Availability of teaching forces in rural primary schools should be given special priority since teachers play an important role in determining and maintaining the quality of education and students’ academic performance.
  3. It is recommended that the teachers work environment in rural primary schools should be improved so as to attract and retain teachers in rural primary schools.
  4. In services training for teachers should be undertaken regularly with the emphasis in all subjects and not be limited to basic skills of reading the writing and counting only. This is to enable all primary school teachers in rural areas to cope with technological, policy and curriculum changes as well as updating their pedagogical skills and knowledge.
  5. The environment under which public primary school teachers works should be the same with conditions of the other civil servants in terms of accommodation and other working benefits.
  6. Besides salaries and wages, the work environment should be made more conducive for academic work.. Salaries should, however, be made attractive for the teacher to be able to take good care of themselves and their families without working elsewhere to make ends meet. Their salaries and allowances should be paid as at when due.
  7. Teaching media and technologies should be emphasized for effective teaching and learning process which will effluence learners to realize their full potential. Teaching aids and equipment should be provided to teachers for effective teaching and learning processes.

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