Influence Of Work Schedule And Occupational Stress On Job Satisfaction

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology


Abstract


The study investigates the influence of work schedule and occupational stress on employee job satisfaction in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Employees occupational stress is due to unpleasant emotional situation that an individual experiences when the requirements of job are not counter balanced with his ability to cope the situation. This affects the employee’s job satisfaction. The study adopts descriptive research approach. So as to achieve the objectives of this study, information was gathered from four public organization (Technique and vocational administrative office, Health science collage, Revenue office and Hospital), through self administered questionnaire from a sample of 192 public organization employees. The study was adopts both probability and non-probability sampling method. The data collected from the questionnaire were processed by using SPSS 16.0 version and analyzed by using descriptive statistical tools such as mean and standard deviation. The mean rank of Friedman was used to rank the factors contributing for occupational stress, and the Pierson correlation was used see the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction. The study finding indicate that causes of occupational stress significantly were working environment, inflexibility at work, , personal issue factor, lack of financial resource, and management systems. In addition the finding shows there is less job satisfaction in the case study due to limited work promotion, unfair salary lack of confidence in management, lack of employees work relationship, limited learning opportunities, and un-advancement in job. Then the correlation analysis, employees are facing occupational stresses that have caused less job satisfaction it indicates negative relationship.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Research Question
  • 1.4 Objectives
  • 1.4.1 General Objectives
  • 1.4.2 Specific Objectives
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Occupational stress
  • 2.1.1 The Concept And Definition Of Occupational stress
  • 2.1.2 cause of occupational stress
  • 2.1.3 Sign of occupational stress
  • 2.1.4 Consequence of occupational stress
  • 2.2 Job Satisfaction
  • 2.2.1 The Concept and Definition Of job satisfaction
  • 2.2.2 Theories of Job Satisfaction
  • 2.2.3 Measuring of Job Satisfaction
  • 2.2.4 Consequence of Job Satisfaction
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Conceptual Frame Work

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Description of the Study of Area
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.2.1 Research Type
  • 3.3 Data Type, Source and Method of Data Collection
  • 3.4 Study Population and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4.1 Study Population
  • 3.4.2 Sampling Method and Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Method of Data Processing and Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Respondent Response Rate
  • 4.2 Demographic Characteristics
  • 4.3. Survey Result Discussion
  • 4.3.1 Environmental Factor Causing Occupational stress
  • 4.3.2. Lack Of Financial Reward
  • 4.3.3 Inflexibility in Work
  • 4.3.4 Personal Issue
  • 4.3.5 Management System
  • 4.4 Descriptive Statics Rank Of Factor Causing Occupational stress
  • 4.5 Employee Job Satisfaction
  • 4.6 The effect of occupational stress and job satisfaction

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background of the study

Job satisfaction is the most widely researched job attitude and among the most extensively researched subjects in Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology (Judge & Church, 2000). It has been linked to productivity, motivation, absenteeism/tardiness, accidents, mental/physical health, and general life satisfaction (Landy, 1978, Wegge, Schmidt, Parkes & Van Dick, 2007). Job satisfaction is considered as one of the most important construct in I/O Psychology because of its role to understanding of many activities that takes place in the work environment. It is an extent to which an individual or worker performs his/her work effectively. Other factors that affect job satisfaction are work schedule and occupational stress, which form the basis for this study.

According to Kerber & Campbell (1987), measurement of job satisfaction helps identify specific aspects of a job that require improvement. Employee job satisfaction is a central attention in the researches and discussions in work and organizational psychology. It is opined that a happy employee is productive and vice versa (Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer, 1999). In reality, employees are more satisfied when they enjoy the environment in which they work. The extent to which an employee is satisfied with his/her work determines the growth or collapse of the organization where he/she works (Thompson & Phua, 2012).

However, organizations tend to focus more on predicting employees’ job performance rather than its satisfaction. In recent times, research has been conducted on employees’ job satisfaction unlike its initial state where it was being ignored. Locke (1976) described job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Most organizations in African countries (Nigeria especially) seems to ignore the important of their employees’ job satisfaction but focuses more on the organizations’ productivity and sales increase.

Job characteristics approach research has revealed that the nature of an individual’s job or the characteristics of the organization predominantly determines job satisfaction. According to Hackman & Oldham (1980), a job characteristic is an aspect of a job that generates ideal conditions for high levels of motivation, satisfaction, and performance. A common premise in research of the effects of job circumstances on job satisfaction by comparing the current receivables from the job with what they believe they should receive, Jex (2002). For example, if an employee receiving an annual salary of #5,000,000 believes that he/she should be receiving a salary of #3,500,000, then he or she will experience satisfaction; however, if the employee believes that he or she should be receiving #9,000,000, then he or she will feel dissatisfied.

According to Locke (1976, Saari & Judge, 2004), this process becomes even more complex since the importance of work schedule differs as per individual perception. For example, one employee may feel that pay rate is extremely important while another may feel that social relationships are more important. Consequently, this leads to individual’s level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction when expectations are met or not.

Based on social information process, Jex (2002) explains that during social information processing, employees look to co-workers to make sense of and develop attitudes about their work environment. In other words, if employees find their co-workers positive and satisfied then they will most likely be satisfied; however, if their co-workers are negative and dissatisfied then the employee will most likely be dissatisfied.

Thirdly, dispositional (work characteristics) depicts that internal disposition is the crux of the latest method of explaining job satisfaction which hints some people being inclined to be satisfied or dissatisfied with their work irrespective of the nature of the job or the organizational environment (Jex, 2002).

Shift work occurs in a work schedule that necessitates 24 hours a day and occasionally, 7 days a week, to keep an organization operating without a hitch. Shift work occurs whenever 24-hour coverage is necessary or when a 24-hour day is needed to optimize work output and productivity. There are many approaches to shift work. For example, an employee may work 8 hours during a day that consists of three 8-hour shifts. Or, an employee may work twelve hours a day for 4 straight days and then be off the next 4 days. Employers have experimented with every conceivable form of shift work in an effort to maximize the potential of their operation while also considering how to minimize any ill effects on their workers (Schultz, Duane & Ellen, 2010). Those working the night shift, in particular, are susceptible to debilitating health effects due to lack of sick and poor eating habits.

Shift work, in which an employee works the same shift consistently, is always better for employee to create a fulfilling lifestyle and home life. Conversely, constantly changing shifts disrupts one’s life patterns. Here in Nigeria, not all the employees in different organizations do perform the usual 8am – 4pm – five days – a week. Nurses, pharmacists, military personnel’s, fire fighters, prison warders among others, do provide 24-hours – a – day service. Muchinsky (1997), posits that in industrial manufacturing companies, some technologies/machine require constant monitoring and operation. Hence, it becomes rational and practical to run these machines continually by having different shift work systems round the clock. He notes further that there are no uniform shift hours, as various companies adopt different shifts.

Usually for nurses, a 24-hour-a-day is broken into three 8-hour- work shifts as follows:

  1. 7am to 2pm (day shift):
  2. 2pm to 10pm (swing or afternoon shift)’’ and
  3. 10pm to 7am (night shift).

Muchinsky finally observes that some companies have employees run only one shift, more so, as workers generally do not like the afternoon and night shift. Consequently, many firms and organizations do rotate the shift on weekly basis so as to carry all the workers along. Psychologists in industrial settings did and still do investigate the degree to which workers’ job satisfactions are affected by the shift work, and their abilities to cope with these changes in work schedules, Muchinsky (1988).

Since it is the duty of hospital workers to ensure that the health condition of the citizens here in Nigeria is well taken care of, the hospital workers had since adopted three shift work schedules covering from Sunday to Saturday of every week. In order to cover all these duties and safeguard the lives of the citizens effectively, the shift work schedule in this organization is as follows:

  1. Morning shift, from 0600 hrs to 1400 hours;
  2. Afternoon shift, 1400 to 2200 hours; and
  3. Night shift. 2200 hours to 0600 hours.

It should be noted at this juncture that the first workers to be initiated to this routine were not hospital workers, or even military personnel’s, but bakers. Industrialization and global warfare brought shift work into the mainstream (Aveni, 1999). In other words, estimates are that more than 25% of all workers in the U.S. and Europe are now shift workers.

This study investigates whether the hospital workers actually do have job satisfactions on their job; and/or experience stress in their day to day hassles while working these shifts. Aschoff (1978), in his work posits that shift workers experience many problems ranging from physiological to social adjustments; stressing that most physiological problems are associated with interruptions of the circadian rhythm or internal biological clock; that is to say, our bodies are “programmed” for a certain time cycle. Hence, shift works have been observed to interrupt the cycles of eating, sleeping and working hours; and workers on this shift therefore, tend to experience physiological problems.

In actual fact, the hospital workers on these shift works are mostly those on the lower ranks in the health sector. These are the nurses, social health workers, etc.; who constitute the life wire of the work. These groups of people are those mostly running the shift work systems; and are equally seen on the field from time to time. These are the same group of hospital workers seen by the general public either in their course of attending, treating of patients, and/or probably, while carrying out their health duties. 1.2 Statement of the problem

Stress at work can be a real problem to the organization as well as for its workers. Congested work schedule and occupational stress is thought to affect individuals’ psychological and physical health, as well as organizations’ effectiveness, in an adverse manner.

Workers who are stressed are also more likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less safe at work, which brought less job satisfaction. The study by Frank M. Gryna , (2004) suggests stress is one of the factor that affect the organization productivity either in public and private organization.

Stress can be brought about by pressures at home and at work. According to, Chan et al., (2000) the ultimate results of this pressure have been found to one of the important factors influencing job stress in their work. Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1999).

However, no more study conducted at the case study level reference to factors of job stress on public employee’s job satisfaction. Study by Mulu (2012) conducted study on effects of work overload on job satisfaction in case of five public organization office found in Uyo, and evidences work overload, lack of financial reward, and management system problems are caused work tress that affects employee’s job satisfaction.

In line to the above stated problem the researcher assessed occupational stress resulted from work environment, lack of financial reward, personal issue, management problem and inflexibility at work. Hence, the study looks such factors to fill the study research gap of occupational stress factors on public organization employee’s job satisfaction


1.3 Research question

The following research questions are addressed, in line with the above stated problem statement. These are :

  1. What are the causes of job stress in public organization case of University of Uyo Teaching Hospital?
  2. What are the effects of job stress on employees’ job satisfaction in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital?
  3. What could be the magnitude job stress on a public organization employees job
    Satisfaction?
  4. What are the major to be taken to reduce occupational stress and improve job satisfaction?

1.4 Objectives of the study

The following general and specific objectives are set for the study.

General Objectives:
  1. To assess indicating factors toward job stress on employees job satisfaction of University of Uyo Teaching Hospital.
Specific objectives:
  1. To investigate working environment stress toward job satisfaction.
  2. To identify how Inflexibility in occupational stress influence workers job satisfaction.
  3. To assess whether job stress limits job satisfaction due to Lack of financial rewards
  4. To identify how job stress limits the interactions of workers with colleagues to prompt Personal issues
  5. To look management system stress at specifications regarding job satisfaction.
  6. To offer suggestion, on the basis of the study results, ways and means for reduce occupational stress and improving Job satisfaction on the employee and more effective and efficient.

1.5 Significance of the study

The current study come up with good and relevant finding about job stress and employee job satisfaction of the study area. Primarily, the results of this study benefits to the selected organizations in particular and governmental organizations in general; that makes to understand the state of occupational stress and its effect on employee satisfaction. It helps the organizations to take corrective measures. Furthermore, it will be used as reference for other researchers who are interested to conduct study related to this problem.


1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study focus on the effect of work schedule and occupational stress on employee job satisfaction in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


1.7 Limitation of the study

The study was only conducted in four public service enterprises which limits the genralibility of the research findings. Another limitation was lack of recent and relevant literature on the topic, especially at the case study level. Finally financial and time limitation constrained to conduct a comprehensive and detail study by taking large sample and remaining explanatory variables. In spite of these short comings, however, it was attempted to make the study as complete as possible.


1.8 Organization of the study

The studies have five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction which consists of background of the study, statement of the problem, research question, objectives, significance, scope and limitation of the study. The second chapter presented review of related literature. Chapter three presented research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the data presentation and analysis finally chapter five contains summary of results, concluding remarks and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

The main objectives of this research paper have been assess the influence of work schedule and occupational stress on employee job satisfaction in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital as a case, by descriptive statistical tools. Hence, this chapter provides the summary of main conclusions and recommendations and some suggestions for appropriate further research study based on discussions and data analysis.


5.1. Summary

The following summary of the finding were stated from the survey result and analysis discussed in previous chapter.

  1. The research finds that, not conducive working environment causes occupational stress and in the same direction brought less job satisfaction. Working environment factors causing occupational stress and less job satisfaction in the case study were due to employees working location that hinders them to get to work regularly and lack of equipment and infrastructure at their organization.
  2. Lacks of financial reward at work were other factors causing occupational stress at the case study. The studies findthat organizations pay hours of unfair that significantly contribute to occupational stress and less job satisfaction.
  3. Factor due to of inflexibility at work, significantly causing occupational stress were, pressure to work long hours, no proper schedule of job and unable to neglect some tasks when employees face too much to do. Thus, this three factors causing occupational stress in the case study directly contributes for employees less job satisfaction.

Personal issue factor causes occupational stress. The finding shows, employees un-clarity on what their duties and responsibilities, lack of relationships at work and lack of skills at work are factors causing occupational stress that significantly brought less job satisfaction in the case study.

The research finding also indicates a management system factor contributes for occupational stress. This were due to; limited rely on line manager to help employees with a work problem, no sufficient opportunities to question managers about change at work, employees inabilityto talk to their line manager about something that has upset or annoyed them about work, multi task responsibilities, and lack of supportive feedback on the work employees do. Thus these have contributed to employees less job satisfaction.

The research finds that in the case study employees are facing less job satisfaction due to limited work promotion, unfair salary, lack of confidence in management, lack of employees work relationship, limited learning opportunities, and un-advancement in job.

Finally, the finding indicates the prevailing occupational stress factors affect the employees to face less job satisfaction in the case study area.


5.2. Conclusion

Employees are pressured to work long hour which significantly causes occupational stress due to inflexibility at work of public organizations and this directly contributes for employees less job satisfaction. Un conducive work location and lack of equipment and infrastructure also causes occupational stress that results from work environment conditions. In addition employee’s lack of relationship at work and lack of skill significantly contributes for occupational stress. Similarly, multi task responsibility and lack of skill contributes for occupational stress resulting from management system problems.

The study again concludes, there is an employee less job satisfaction in the case study due to limited work promotion, unfair salary, lack of confidence in management, lack of employees work relationship, limited learning opportunities, and un-advancement in job. Finally the study concludes the effect of occupational stress have negatively affect job satisfaction.


5.3. Recommendation

The following recommendations were pointed by the researcher as follow:

  1. The government should have to make conducive working environment for public organizations employees in order to limit employees occupational stress through providing timely and long run infrastructural facility and appropriate working condition that welfare the employee to feel good job satisfaction.
  2. The public organization by itself should have to work on work flexibility through less employees work load, prompting a remarkable work relation and other suggestible remedy.
  3. Employees are required to have a clear understanding of duty and responsibility of their organization and should have to build to enhance their professional work skill. The government should have to give due consideration on such issue.
  4. Payment was considered to be one of the most important factors influencing employee job satisfaction. However, the employees of the public service organizations considered in this study were found less satisfied with pay. To retain talented employees, therefore, the management of the organizations should design a compensation system that satisfies pay adequacy and pay equity of employees. Pay adequacy is the degree to which an individual’s pay level satisfies his or her financial needs while pay equity is the degree to which an individual perceives that his or her pay level is fair in comparison to others.
  5. The management of public organization should have a well defined skill and experience to couch employees to work satisfactorily

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