Influence Of Work Environment On Organization Productivity (A Study Of Selected SMEs In Oyo State)
This study was carried out to examine the influence of work environment on organization productivity using selected SMEs in Oyo State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity, find out the factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization, find out whether work environment has an impact on workers efficiency thereby influencing organizational productivity, determine whether work environment influences organizational commitment and effectiveness, ascertain whether ergonomics promotes organizational performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of selected SMEs in Oyo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals there is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity. The study also revealed that the factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization includes: adequate provision of work equipment, comfortable office layout, proper ventilation, effective occupational/safety practices, conflict management, interpersonal relations, leadership style. Therefore, it is recommended that to improve organizational performance, organizations should ensure that office design at the workplace does not affects employee concentration at work. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Work is an important part of our lives while on one hand it can be a cause of stress on the other hand it can also contribute to development, well-being and good health. Understanding the impact of work on our lives has been an important research objective within work and health psychology. Some causal links have been established, especially between certain aspects of work and stress/poor health outcomes (Shirom, 2003). When trying to apply this knowledge in primary interventions, with the intention to improve the psychosocial work environment and prevent sick-leave or bad health outcomes, the results have been less impressive, at least according to publications in peer-reviewed journals (Van ET AL., 2001). Work environment is about creating conditions in which an employee can perform his/her duties comfortably. Effective application of ergonomics can achieve a balance between workers task and demands. This will enhance operator productivity, provide worker safety and physical and mental well-being and job satisfaction thus enhanced organizational perfomance (Garbie, 2014). Physical environment as an aspect of the work environment have directly affected the human sense and subtly changed interpersonal interactions and thus productivity. This is so because the characteristics of a room or a place of meeting for a group have consequences regarding productivity and satisfaction level. The workplace environment is the most critical factor in keeping an employee satisfied in today’s business world. Today’s workplace is different, diverse, and constantly changing. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. Workers are living in a growing economy and have almost limitless job opportunities. This combination of factors has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business (Smith, 2011).
A large proportion of employees are being exposed to psychosocial stressors at work, and the consequences are believed to be very significant for workers, workplaces, and society (Kristensen et al, 2005). Among these consequences are musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders, stress, burnout, reduced quality of life, sickness absence, labor turnover, and decreased motivation and productivity. Recently, the EU member countries gave psychosocial factors “top priority” among work environment factors, and the directors of the European work environment institutes have estimated that psychosocial factors would be the most important research field in the future.
Work environment has both positive and negative effects on the psychological and welfare of employees. The work environment can be described as the environment in which people are working it is wide and incorporates the physical scenery (e.g. noise, equipment, heat), fundamentals of the job itself (e.g. workload, task, complexity) extensive business features (e.g. culture, history) and even extra business background (e.g. industry setting, workers relation). However all the aspects of work environment are correspondingly significant or indeed appropriate when considered job satisfaction and also affects the welfare of employees (Jain & Kaur, 2004).
Employee satisfaction, future performance, and organizational efficiency are all determined by the consistency of your work environment. The purpose of the work environment is to create a comfortable environment in which employees can work comfortably. Ergonomic concepts allow employees to reconcile their tasks and requirements. This improves operator productivity, employee physical, physiological, social, mental health and safety, and work satisfaction and performance. The physical reality as part of the workplace has a profound impact on the human experience, which leads to gradual improvement of internal communication to increase production efficiency. Becker (2002)considered workplace strategies for both individual small start-up projects and projects initiated by large corporations.
Creating a productive work environment in an organization, enterprise, or small business is important to increasing revenue. Like the relationship between the factory and the workplace, the workplace becomes an integral part of the work. Management that controls maximizing employee productivity focuses on two main areas: personal motivation and work environment infrastructure Chandrasekar (2011). Work and personal resources predict work engagement, which helps improve work efficiency. Therefore, work engagement is an important indicator of employee and company well-being.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The productivity by members of staff of any organization is very necessary to maintain. It’s against this background therefore that a number of environmental factors that likely have been causing the decline in worker productivity are been critically examined in previous studies. However, the average business firms place more premiums on profit, especially in a capitalist economy as ours. Employers believe they can hire and fire at any time, as far as there is someone willing to do the job even at a lower pay with this unfortunate state of affairs, work environment are not given proper attention. This disturbing tread in businesses as coursed companies to lose its staff who leave in search of a better environment in terms of better promotion policy, better remuneration, good and better working conditions. On this note, this work attempts to find out the extent to which the environment such as workplace condition, influences organizational productivity, as well as employees performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of work environment on organization productivity using SMES in Oyo State as a case study. The study has the following specific objectives.
- Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity.
- Find out the factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization.
- Find out whether work environment has an impact on workers efficiency thereby influencing organizational productivity.
- Determine whether work environment influences organizational commitment and effectiveness.
- Ascertain whether ergonomics promotes organizational performance.
1.4 Research Question
The research is guided by the following questions.
- Is there a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity?
- What are the factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization?
- Does work environment have an impact on workers efficiency thereby influencing organizational productivity?
- Does work environment influence organizational commitment and effectiveness?.
- Does ergonomics promote organizational performance?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity.
Ha: There is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Research studies and even text books on productivity and work environment are not exhaustive. It is in this view that the researcher claims that this study will be a valuable reading material for students and researchers. The study will also serve as a manual to managers as well as other business organizations. It is hoped that the work would provoke further research into productivity in other sectors in the economy Nigeria.
The information gathered in this study will provide an empirical framework for management on the challenges of employee productivity and work environment. It is the researcher’s conviction that inefficiency and ineffectiveness resulting in low production fixity, low profitability and chaos in organizations are the products of inadequate and poor productivity. If this holds true, then a study such as this will help organizations to assess their work environment and make amends where need arises, if their survival, effectiveness, efficiency and profit maximization objectives among others are to be achieved in an orderly and efficient manner.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will be delimited to the influence of work environment on organization productivity. The study will be conducted in Oyo State, as the respondents for the study will be obtained some selected SMEs in the state.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
This is the totality of physical, emotional, sound, psychological and spiritual atmosphere of a work place.
The measure of how resources are brought together in organizations and utilized for accomplishing a set of results.
Employee productivity (sometimes referred to as workforce productivity) is an assessment of the efficiency of a worker or group of workers. Productivity may be evaluated in terms of the output of an employee in a specific period of time.
The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviours to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings and so on to someone else
The term workload can refer to a number of different yet related entities. However, it is clear that cognitive workload results from mental processes when performing tasks, depending on the user’s capabilities and the task demands
Refers to the practice of applying psychological principles and practices to a work environment in order to solve problems and make improvements.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of work environment on organization productivity using selected SMEs in Oyo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the influence of work environment on organization productivity using selected SMEs in Oyo State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity, find out the factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization, find out whether work environment has an impact on workers efficiency thereby influencing organizational productivity, determine whether work environment influences organizational commitment and effectiveness, ascertain whether ergonomics promotes organizational performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of the selected SMEs in Oyo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- There is a significant relationship between work environment and organizational productivity.
- The factors which contributes to an effective work environment in organization includes: adequate provision of work equipment, comfortable office layout, proper ventilation, effective occupational/safety practices, conflict management, interpersonal relations, leadership style.
- Work environment has an impact on workers efficiency thereby influencing organizational productivity.
- Work environment influences organizational commitment and effectiveness.
- Ergonomics promotes organizational performance.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- To improve organizational performance, organizations should ensure that office design at the workplace does not affects employee concentration at work.
- Organization should also provide adequate tools of work, office furniture should be comfortable in terms of height, posture and comfort to ensure that the physical working environment is safe for improved productivity by the employees.
- Effective supervisor support is necessary as it will facilitate organizational performance and there is need to inform well in advance employees concerning important decisions like changes or plans for the future to ensure employees receive all the information they need in order to do their work well.
- The management at work place should respect employees and treat them fairly by appreciating their input to ensure they feel valued by the organizations which they serve. At the place of work is where people spend more time thus the need to be happy and satisfied. The immediate supervisor should ensure that employees have good development opportunities to give high priority to job satisfaction.
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