Influence Of Television Programmes Contribution To Football Development In Nigeria
The study examined the influence of television programmes and its contribution to football development in Nigeria, a study of National Television Authority, Osun State and Channels Television, Lagos State. The study examined the following sub variables of football development (coverage of football events, active participation of football, improving football facilities and challenges) in Nigeria. This research work adopted the descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprises 132 employees. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to select 100 employees at junior, senior and management cadres, 50 employees from National Television Authority, Osun State and 50 employees from Channels Television, Lagos State were selected for convenience purpose. The retrieved copies of questionnaire was analyzed using simple percentage and frequency count with the aid of the software SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and t-test was performed using SPSS. The results revealed that: Television programmes has a significant influence on the coverage of football events in Nigeria. (p-value 0.01>0.000). Football television programmes has a significant contribution to the active participation of football by Nigerians. (p-value 0.01>0.000). Football television programmes is significant in improving football facilities in Nigeria. (p-value 0.05>0.000). There is a significant effect of challenges on television programmes towards football events coverage in Nigeria. (p-value 0.01>0.000). The study concluded that television’s programmes contributed a lot to the performance and development of football and sports in Nigeria. The study recommended that; Sections should be encouraged to cover football events for the development of grassroots football; Football managers and administrators should accept the mass media as partners in progress; Government and sport administrators should address the issues highlighted that are affecting football facilities in Nigeria; There is need for corporate sponsors, football promoters and government to come to the aid of financing football leagues for development; Nigerian television should endeavor to adequately broadcast football league matches to show their own style of football to the world.
Key Words: Development, Football, Football Development, Television, Television Programmes.
Table of Contents
- Cover Page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problems
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Scope of the Study
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Summary of the chapter and gap in knowledge
- 3.0 Introduction
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Technique and Size
- 3.4 Data Collection Procedure
- 3.4.1 Administering Questionnaires
- 3.4.2 Advantages of the Questionnaire
- 3.5 Instrument of the Data
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability Test
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
- 4.0 Introduction
- 4.1 Presentation of Data
- 4.2 Data Presentation
- 4.3 Testing of Hypotheses
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.0 Introduction
- 5.1 Summary of the Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Outcomes of the Research
- 5.5 Limitation of the Study
- 5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
A first step has to be made in terms of the developments on the technological front and the ways in which these developments are making inroads into the understanding of football and sports. Technology is the force of today‘s ever-evolving world, and television is at the heart of it. While experiencing its own evolution and advancement, Television has maintained a constant presence. Postman (2015) wrote that television is our culture‘s principal model of knowing about itself. Therefore, he continues that, how television stages the world becomes the model for how the world is properly to be staged. Television is an electronic device which transmits picture and sound. It is used for entertainment, information and commercials. With the advent of satellite and digital technologies, it has contributed to the development of football in Nigeria. Thus there are football viewing centers, bars, hotels etc. in Nigeria showing football to customers and these has really built up the interest of Nigerians in football. For instance, there are programmes on sports and a plethora of both good quality and inappropriate contents (Santrock, 2015). Television combines the appealing features of the movies and radio and it is one of the most popular amusement devices during the youthful years.
Generally, football and sports has become an important aspect of African culture (Holt, 2012) so much so that the interest in and popularity of football have affected the political, social, economic and educational fabric of the nation; television stations both local and foreign channels showing football has unified Nigerians several times. Football is all forms of usually competitive physical activities or games aiming to use, maintain or improve physical abilities and skills of people. Usually the contest or game is realized between two sides, each attempting to excel the other. Football allows a tie game; also provide tie-breaking methods, to ensure one winner and one loser (Holt, 2012). A number of such two-sided contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many football leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular football season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Hundreds of sports exist though and are also shown on television, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, each against all with one winner (Dorsey, 2012).
Football and sports being part of the universal culture is an important instrument for combining different people in Nigeria, Africa and the World. It is an activity that contributes to world peace. It can be defined as a summation of activities designed to affect positively social and moral benefits as well as physical benefits. Maguire (2015) stated that sport is probably the most effective means of communication in the modern world, bypassing both verbal and written communication and reaching directly out to billions of people world-wide. There is no doubt that sports are a viable and legitimate way of building friendship between nations. This has been demonstrated quite a number of times.
Ordinarily, television programmes and football development should have much in common. However, it is commonly known that Nigerian politics influences sports and football in specific, and also, football events can sometimes catalyze political ones. It was not always like that until television programmes was introduced to Nigeria and Africa, however. It is important to state that football as a social phenomenon, is relatively new. Although its origins can be dated back to ancient times to the sports of ancient Greece, modern football appeared in the middle of the nineteenth century. Initially it had a very amateur character and was not popular, so its significance for Nigeria and Africa relations was rather marginal. That situation changed radically in the first half of the twentieth century, mainly due to the first world cup, International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Football Games, which transformed football to a higher level (Anuchie, 2015). The growing popularity of Nigeria football through Nigeria television programmes during this time can be easily illustrated by the number of footballer participating in the Nigeria Leagues, Nations Cup, Olympics, English Premier League, Champions League, world cup etc. which has done more of unification function to the Nigeria than harm.
Morakinyo and Agu (2009) have asserted that, the most important change that has taken place in the sports industry especially in football is the significant role the media (i.e. television) is playing in the development of football the world over. In terms of facilities, it is clear that the generality of the people don’t have access to facilities that could have enable them improve their participation as well as their performance. The state of affairs in this regard is appalling apart from the Abuja stadium as well as the Uyo stadium and a very few others in various state capitals, one can hardly find a standard stadium in Nigeria that is of international standard facilities, even when most of these stadia were constructed mainly for football and athletics purposes. Entrances and exits aren’t enough to cater for the number of people who would want to go in and watch football events. Rural areas seem to be forgotten in the provision of facilities.
Thus, through Television programmes, the average Nigerian football fan knows everything about foreign football ranging from the minuets details of players’ private lives, to scores of matches and crowd behaviour. Reserve is the case in Nigeria, as virtually nothing is known about our own teams and football. Lamenting this state of affairs, a few years ago, Ibagere (2009) submits thus, while we enjoy European matches’ week in week out, we know nothing about our own football league. We can therefore give a vivid account of how a club like Chelsea Football Club of England won the football Association Premier League in 2016 from the beginning. However, same cannot be done about Kano Pillars simply because the scanty news we get about the club are scraps from daily newspapers which aren’t even enough to make any statement about the team. Today, the situation is worse. Youths now wear T-shirts and caps bearing the names of their favorite teams and players such as Chelsea, Arsenal, Messi, Ronaldo, Lampard and so on.
In our present world, it could be seen that, television performed creditably, through television people got interested in participating in football activities and as well as other sports and this has made the focus and interest in football activities among the youths developed. This perhaps is why Bisi Adanri (2005) notes that, it is however clear that when we talk about football in Nigeria it gains a lot of interest on television most especially among the youths, who have found and developed interest in a club or the other. According to her, football is world’s most popular sporting event and has outshined other sports, especially on television. It attracts lots of sponsorship and demands audience loyalty. From Adanri’s submission, the fact could be gleaned that television programmes in Nigeria concentrates on football simply because it can attract sponsorship. But even the football that has become the main focus has not been placed on the proper pedestal that can enhance actual development. However, this research will focus on Nigeria while examining television programmes influences on football development.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Since the advent of television, it has remained the most influential platform among the other mass media platforms. It is mostly regarded as a source of credible information. The reasons being that, it exhibits some kind of attributes such as full colour, action packed, audio and visual strength, combination of football players as well as presenters. However, this makes television a realism platform among the audience. The viewing of sports television programmes by Nigerians has been associated with positive characteristics in the country like less aggressiveness, less violence, reading sports books, placing value in playing football which has helped Nigerians in being more creative in football and totally unite all tribes. In respect to football development and its contribution in Nigeria, television programme has done little or less in this regard.
At present, many of our football arenas or pitches are dilapidated and derelict which is as a result of proper management and lack of financing. Football playing turfs in most of our stadia is just like a farmland from which crops such as cassava had just been cultivated. This is one reason why watching Nigerian football on television is totally boring as it is devoid of the free flowing and highly entertaining characteristics reminiscent of that from England, Italy, Spain, Germany, France and other countries having standard playing turfs. Here in Nigeria, nothing gets done about the dilapidation, maybe because television has consistently failed to focus on the facilities. However, focusing on such issue by television could turn around the situation as those concerned can then be compelled to renovate the facilities. Finding ways to enhance the development of football events in Nigeria can be a challenging prospect for television stations due to the lack of equipment, finance and other contributing factors, but it is also a necessary component towards the development of football in Nigeria. This study therefore, sought to establish the influence of television programmes and its contribution to football development in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of television programmes and its contribution to football development in Nigeria, while the following specific objectives are to;
- Find out the influence of television programmes on football development in Nigeria;
- Examine the influence of television programmes on football promotions in Nigeria;
- Know the influence of television programmes on football financing in Nigeria; and
- Examine the influence of television programmes on Nigeria performance in football.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were stated for this study:
- Does television programmes have influence football development in Nigeria?
- Does television programmes have influence on football promotions in Nigeria?
- How has television programmes influenced the football financing in Nigeria?
- How has television programmes influenced the Nigeria performance in football?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research focused on the influence of television programmes and its contribution to the development of football in Nigeria. The scope of this study is however limited to National Television Authority (NTA) and Channels Television, Lagos State. The reason for using these two television stations is because of their impacts in broadcasting of football events across the country for the past few years, therefore, both case studies are deemed fit for the study.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The results of this study would hopefully be significant in the sense that it would enable the government, policy makers on sports, media houses and the general public on sport which is a unifying factor for development in the country.
This research also hopes to contribute to the body of literature in the area of television programmes and its contribution to football development in Nigeria, thereby enlarging the body of the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
Furthermore, the study will highlight the importance of television programmes as a vehicle for promoting football, encouraging actively participation in football, and encouraging sponsors for better football facilities.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study was faced with a lot of constraint among which are;
Limited time was given for the research of the project which does not allow the researcher go far in enhancing the research project. The project is time consuming which makes completion a difficult task.
There are many difficulties during the research of the project. Co-ordination, organization and gathering of materials.
1.8 Definition of Terms
A type of sport that involves two teams (where each team is made up of 11players) competing for the winner by scoring the highest goal.
It means the grassroots, and ensuring that everyone can experience the joy of the game at whatever level they aspire to, especially the young as an entrance into the sport. It means giving young players a taste of international football at an early stage through development tournaments.
Football Television Programmes:
These are football programmes anchored by one or more football analysts talking about football in general usually via the television.
NPL is an acronym for Nigeria Premier League which is the professional football league in Nigeria. Just like EPL, it is also made up of twenty teams.
Any organized physical activity like football where participants are motivated by internal and external rewards.
The National Broadcasting Commission (NBC):
This is a parastatal of the Federal Government of Nigeria established by Section 1 of the National Broadcasting Commission Act, Cap. NII, laws of the Federation, 2004 and vested with the responsibilities of, amongst other things, regulating and controlling the broadcasting Industry in Nigeria.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter deals with the summary of the study, descriptive and empirical findings as well as conclusion and recommendations made, and suggestions for further research.
5.1. Summary of the Findings
The study examined the influence of television programmes and its contribution to football development in Nigeria. The study examined the following sub variables of football development (coverage of football events, active participation of football, improving football facilities and challenges) in Nigeria. From the findings of the study, it shows that television has a very significant influence on the development of football in Nigeria.
Research question one revealed that, television programmes influenced football development in Nigeria at 0.000 significant level, which is less than p-value of 0.01. The study is in line with the findings of Enyeribe (1993), that television stations are good in previewing events, but poor in reporting live events. Morgan (2002) described coverage of football events in this world by the media as total, complete and is per second update. This indicates that the preview, live of commentaries and analysis are essentially reported. The study therefore concludes that, television programmes have an influence on football development in Nigeria. Research question two indicates that, television programmes have influence on football promotions in Nigeria at a significant value of 0.000 which is less than 0.01. This study corroborates with the findings of Okoro (1991), who strongly stressed that Nigeria television identify new opportunities and inform their publics. The findings of this shows that television stations have been painting pictures of successful footballers as heroes and provide information on their financial positives. Such information could attract youths to participate in football to enjoy such successes. This study also corroborates with the findings of Akindele (2006), who observed that it is not only media information on finance that attracts young players to football, but also, their .presentation as heroes. He further maintained that footballers always want to remain in headline news are sign contracts for royalties. Therefore, the study concludes that, television programmes have influence on football promotions in Nigeria.
Research question three showed that, television programmes influence football financing in Nigeria at 0.000 significant level, which is less than p-value of 0.05. This study is in line with the findings of Oyetunji and Abayemi (2000), who reported that mass media exert significant influence on government and organizations in the world of football and sports facilities in Africa. Therefore, this study concludes that, television programmes influence football financing in Nigeria.
Research question four revealed that, television programmes influence Nigeria performance in football at 0.000 significance level, which is less than p-value of 0.01. Therefore, the study concludes that, television programmes influence Nigeria performance in football.
The foregoing has revealed that football is a very important area of national life which the country should explore and develop for the benefit of the nation. It has also been established that there has been a serious neglect of the area and that part of the neglect is perpetrated by television which has not focused adequately on it. However, television’s focus has, rather, been towards the further entrenchment of media imperialism whereby we are buffeted with sporting activities of foreign countries. We are therefore confronted with complete obscurity of our traditional football and sports some of which can be promoted to international levels.
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made;
- The television and general mass media should be encouraged to cover football events for the development of our of grassroots football.
- Football managers and administrators should accept the mass media as partners in progress so as to encourage the mass media to create a more positive awareness of football and football administration in Nigeria.
- Government and sport administrators should address the issues highlighted that are affecting our football facilities in Nigeria.
- There is need for corporate sponsors, football promoters and government to come to the aid of financing our football leagues for development
- Nigerian television should endeavour to adequately broadcast our football league matches to show our own style of football to the world.
- For the purpose of creating awareness and generating more interest, television personnel concerned with sports should be given adequate training in sports to enable them carry out their analysis effectively. An armchair analyst who is unable to use appropriate terms or is ignorant of the rules can only engender alienation from such sports.
- Television should engage in serious marketing in order to attract corporate bodies and rich individuals to be interested in sponsorship, so that the medium can cover and broadcast different sporting activities.
In conclusion, these recommendations, if implemented will go a long way in enhancing television’s programmes performance and its role in development football and sports in general in Nigeria.
5.4 Outcomes of the Research
Football television programmes has a significant influence on the coverage of football events in Nigeria
Football television programmes has a significant contribution to the active participation of football by Nigerians.
Football television programmes is significant in improving football facilities in Nigeria.
There is a significant effect of challenges on television programmes towards football events coverage in Nigeria.
5.5 Limitation of the Study
One major limitation to this study was the financial constraint required in the constant visit to the two television houses to acquire the relevant data. Time also was a factor as the researcher has to make available the necessary time in order to meet up with the research deadline. Finally, there was also a limitation of literature on the study has this is the first time a subject matter of this nature is been studied in the country, thereby making it difficult to get data.
5.6. Suggestions for Further Studies
It was suggested that, future researcher should conduct more study on different variables relating to football development; also research should be carried out in other mass media platforms aside from television in order to make a generalization of the subject matter.
Influence Of Television Programmes Contribution To Football Development In Nigeria
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