Influence Of Teacher Factors On Students’ Academic Achievement In Basic Technology

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Influence Of Teacher Factors On Students’ Academic Achievement In Basic Technology


Abstract


The study investigated teacher factors influencing students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State using the descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 274724 made up of Senior Secondary Two (SSII) students (34168) and teachers (240556) in the 23 Local Government Areas of Rivers State in the 2018/2019 academic session. The sample size of the study was 764 comprising 380 students and 384 teachers obtained by applying the online Fluid Survey Sample Size Calculator. The sample was categorised into urban [SSII students (163) and teachers (230)] and rural [SSII students (217) and teachers (154)] structured questionnaire titled Teacher Factors on Students’ Academic Performance (TFSAP) with a reliability coefficient of 0.82 established using Cronbach Alpha. The research questions were answered with means and standard deviations computed from the collected data, while the independent samples t-test was used to test the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. It was found that teacher’s administration of students’ assignments, teachers’ commitment to duty, and teacher-students interaction were poor and as such could not significantly influence students’ academic performance. It was further found that teachers’ communication skills were good and influenced students’ academic performance, but that teachers had excess workload that impinged their influence on students’ academic performance. It was recommended, among others, that teachers’ workload should be made lighter to make them effective and be able to administer students’ assignments and other duties, enhance teachers’ salaries and other incentives to whip up their commitment to duty.

Keywords: Assignment, commitment, communication, duty, interaction, workload.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is a very important human activity and the teacher is at the centre of it all. Education builds the individual and brings developments to environments and nations. The purpose of education is to equip the citizenry to reshape their society and eliminate inequality (Boit, Njoki and Chang’ach, 2012). Education plays a vital role in creating a country’s human resource (Achoka, Odebero, Maiyo & Mualuko, 2007) and generates opportunities for social and economic development (Onsumu, Muthaka, Ngware & Kosembei, 2006). Education cannot reshape the society and eliminate inequality, create a country’s human resource, generate opportunities for social and economic development if the learners do not acquire the requisite skills stipulated by the school programmes through the instructional objectives. The teacher uses achievement tests to ensure that these skills have been acquired. Without the test and the teacher, education is meaningless.

Achievement tests assess the proficiency of students (Obilor, 2019). Proficiency is the amount of grade-appropriate knowledge and skills a student has acquired up to the point of testing. The most common types of achievement tests are the standardized test and the classroom (or teacher-made) test developed to measure skills and knowledge learned in a given grade level, usually through planned instruction, such as training or classroom instruction. Achievement test scores are often used in an educational system to determine the level of instruction for which a student is prepared. High achievement scores usually indicate a mastery of grade-level material, and the readiness for advanced instruction. Low achievement scores can indicate the need for remediation or repeating a course. Although students’ performances are generally defined in terms of students’ test scores which denote their academic achievement (Worthington, 2001), students’ achievement is produced by several inputs in the educational process which include, but are not limited to, student’s family background characteristics, class size, availability of teaching and learning materials, and teacher characteristics (Wobmann, 2004). The teacher is the focus on which all the programmes, tests, and even extra-curricular activities of the school rotate. In other words, the teacher a principal factor in the provision of education and thus affects the quality of education in a significant way (Kimani, Kara, & Njagi, 2013).

Teachers play crucial roles in educational attainment of learners because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe, 2001). Wright, Horn and Sanders (1997) stressed that the most important factor influencing student learning is the teacher. Thus, the teacher has a great influence on students’ academic achievement. Teachers stand in the interface of the transmission of knowledge, values and skills in the learning process. If the teacher is ineffective, students under the teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically (Kimani, Kara, & Njagi, 2013) and this is regardless of how similar or different the students are in terms of individual potential in academic achievement.

Often when students perform well academically, the teacher is never mentioned, but when the students perform poorly or behave irrationally, the teachers are to blame. Odhiambo (2005) contended that there is a growing demand from parents, governments and the public for teacher accountability. Although schools are commonly evaluated using students’ achievement data (Heck, 2009), but the teachers cannot be dissociated from the students they teach and academic results of schools. Thus, it would be logical to find out how much influence teachers have on students: Teachers’ influence in terms of teacher’s administration of students’ assignments, teacher’s workload, teacher-students interaction, teacher’s communication skills, teacher’s commitment to duty, and many more.

Teacher’s administration of students’ assignments is a very important source of influence of teachers on their students. The teacher must score classroom exercises (tests, quizzes, questioning), and take home assignments which are forms of assessment for learning and assessment as learning (formative assessment) and final examinations which serve as assessment of learning (summative assessment) to evaluate the progress of students in achieving specified instructional objectives and provide them with appropriate feedback which make for effective teaching and learning. Unfortunately, most teachers do not score theses exercises either due to laziness and nonchalance, or over bearing workload, or lack of motivation or sometimes all of the above. Molokomphale and Mavis (2014) declared that the non-scoring of exercises given to students by teachers smacks of lack of commitment to duty and makes it very difficult, if not impossible, for teachers to know if the students have mastered the skills taught or achieved the instructional objectives stipulated.

Teacher’s workload is inversely related to teachers’ performance. In other words, as teachers’ workload increases, teachers’ performance decreases. For instance, in Nigeria, the National Policy on Education stipulates a teacher-students ratio of 1:40. But this is only on paper as most public secondary schools have teacher-students ratio of over 1:200. This impacts on teachers’ efficiency very negatively, particularly on teachers’ administration of students’ assignments. In addition to this gigantic teacher-students ratio, some teachers take up to 10 hours of teaching per week and attend to 3 to 5 classes. In some rural schools, a teacher may handle the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry, in spite of the ratio. Rose and Sika (2019) declared that the negative impact of teachers’ excessive workload is real and needs to be addressed to improve students’ outcomes. According to Nwikina and Nwanekezi (2010) teachers’ workload was one of the factors that inhibited students’ academic achievement. Truly, reducing teachers’ workload will undoubtedly mean improving students’ academic performance. This is so because it will lead to teacher efficiency and dedication (though not without adequate motivation).

Appropriate teacher-students interaction makes the teaching-learning process a relaxing experience to behold. Teaching is a unique and dynamic profession and what a nation becomes is dependent on the type and quality of her teachers (Aboho, Dodo, & Isa, 2014). In education, the classroom teacher is accountable for the destiny of the nation because there is a strong tie between his instructional activities, the eventual outcome of his instruction and the development of the learners and the nation. Therefore, if teachers’ interaction with their students is cordial and responsive, the teachers will be able to effectively motivate their students and cause them (the students) to be efficient in their studies. It is very pertinent that the teacher recognises this enormous influence on his students and their education, and dutifully applies same for the students’ ultimate improved academic performance and good life after school. According to Tyler and Boelter (2008), positive teacher expectations about his students are associated with high academic performance or academic gains; whereas negative teacher expectations can result in decrease in academic performance of the students. The significance of teachers knowing the level of their influence on their students is to build positive teacher-student interaction which will propel the students into improved learning and better academic performance. Thus, teachers have to ensure that they are meeting students’ needs, both academically and emotionally by creating learning environments that promote positive cultures with healthy interaction, as it can induce students to channel their educational goals appropriately (Aboho, Dodo, & Isa, 2014).

The teacher-students interaction includes, among other things, teacher-pupil questioning, class work, take home assignments, marking of these work and providing prompt feedbacks, and friendliness of teachers and learners.
Thomas, Dose, and Scott (2002) informed that communication is the lifeblood of any organization and that the survival and health of the organization depend on effective communication. The school, an educational organisation, is run through communication. Information flows through communication to and from head-teachers, teachers, and students. Communication is the transmission of a message that involves the shared understanding between the contexts in which the communication takes place (Saunders & Mills, 1999). In addition, teacher communication skills are important for a teacher in the delivery of education to students (McCarthy & Carter, 2001). Communication skills involve listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. For effective teaching a teacher needs to be highly skilled in all these areas. Teachers with good communication skills always make learning easier and more understandable for students.

Good communication skills of teachers are the basic need of academic success of students, and their professional success in life. Fundamental to teachers’ and students’ success is the teacher’s ability to communicate effectively with students, parents and colleagues. Teachers must have good communication skills to help their students achieve academic success. Without good communication skills, teachers disable the teaching-learning process as well as their own career mobility. Teachers with poor communication skills may cause poor academic performance of students and lead to unstable professional life after school. Good communication minimises the potential of unkind feeling during the process of teaching and learning. For a teacher, it is very pertinent to have good communication skills to create good classroom environment for effective teacher-student interaction to promote effective learning by students and acquisition of desired professional goals. Good communication is not only needed for effective teaching and learning, but it is also very important in the effectiveness of every human concern in life (Batenburg & Smal, 1997).

Teacher’s commitment or lack of commitment to duty can be observed in different ways, ranging from preparation of his lessons, punctuality to duty, completion of scheme or content of work, to motivation of his students. Teacher preparation such as writing schemes, records of work and lesson-plan is a professional requirement for teachers (Malambo, 2012). When teachers do not prepare their lessons, delivery becomes suspect: they commit several blunders when teaching and are easily provoked when students ask questions. Ultimately this lack preparation robs the learners of quality learning because the teachers are bereft of quality lesson delivery.

A teacher’s commitment to duty is also displayed by his punctuality. Some teachers go to the classroom 40 minutes to 50 minutes late for a 1½ hour lesson. As a result of lack of punctuality, such teachers rush through their lessons to cover up for lost time which impacts negatively on students’ comprehension of the taught material leading to poor academic performance by students. On the other hand, teachers that are punctual to duty have enough time to complete their schedule, answer students’ questions and attend to slow learners, the result of which is improved performance. The attitude of punctuality is a virtue which students can imbibe for individual and national development.

Although few teachers may be committed to duty without motivation, most teachers (and in fact employees generally) will not be committed to duty if they lack motivation from the school or their employers. A highly motivated person puts in the maximum effort in his job. Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) indicated that lack of motivation and professional commitment produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students which in turn affect the performance of students academically. Teachers should therefore have adequate incentives in terms of good salary structure, awards for excellence, proper housing facilities, in-service training, and many more. When, for instance, teachers can only afford uncomfortable residential accommodation far away from school due to poor wages and lack of staff accommodation in the school premises, the results are lack of punctuality resulting from chronic traffic congestions, ill preparedness of teachers in delivering lessons, and lack of coverage of syllabus all of which negatively affect the performance of students. This lack of teacher motivation was also noted by Musili (2015) when he opined that when teachers are motivated, they are able to perform better than when they are frustrated or ill motivated. A highly motivated teacher would go an extra mile in ensuring effective syllabus coverage (Cowell & Holsinger, 2000) and also lends extra hand to the weaker learners, and this will certainly ensure improved school performance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ performance at internal and external examinations (especially School Certificate Examinations) leaves a “sour taste in the mouth”. Teachers, parents and school administrators are at sea on what the causes of such abysmal performances are. Measurement and Evaluation experts, Guidance Counsellors and other Psychologists are working assiduously to unravel the reasons for the poor performances and possibly suggest ameliorative strategies. In furtherance of this search, this study investigated the influence of teacher factors on students’ academic performance in Rivers State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of teacher factors on students academic achievement in basic technology.

Specifically, the objectives of the study were to:

  1. Determine how teacher’s administration of students’ assignments influences students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  2. Investigate whether teacher’s workload influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  3. Examine how teacher-students interaction influences students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  4. Determine whether teacher’s communication skills influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  5. Investigate how teacher’s commitment to duty influences students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How well does the teacher administer students’ assignments to influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  2. How much teacher’s workload influences students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  3. What is the extent to which teacher-students interaction influences students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  4. To what extent do teacher’s communication skills influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
  5. How well is the teacher committed to duty to influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

  1. Teacher’s administration of students’ assignment does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
  2. The workload of teachers does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
  3. Teacher-students interaction does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
  4. Teacher’s communication skills do not significantly influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
  5. Teacher’s commitment to duty does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The purpose of any educational research is to contribute to the development of knowledge. The research finding would be of great help to the government and other stakeholder by revealing the relationship between the teacher’s factor and student academic performance in our schools. This will consequently guide the ministry in adopting a new policy of recruiting teacher i.e. to make sure they recruit qualified teacher who are highly effective i.e those with knowledge of content, teaching experience, professional certificate and overall academic ability.

The finding will be of benefit of student, most especially those in the post graduate studies, to add more, or to contribute from where the researchers stopped or what is left to be done in the area of study.

The research finding will be of benefit to any individual who is interested in knowing the effects of basic science teacher quality and students achievement. The finding will be of great importance and help in conference writing related to the area. It will make teachers plan and present their lesson excellently and also those unqualified teacher to go and further their studies so as to meet the minimum required qualification for teaching.

The research finding will help to society to dictate what is to be included in the curriculum so as to improve the quality of the teachers as well as the students. This study will be of significance to curriculum planers. The information from this study will be of benefit to the curriculum developers of the National Policy on Education to forestall all the lapses during the course of building.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is concerned with the influence of teacher factors on students academic achievement in basic technology, this study will be carried out in selected junior secondary schools in River State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This research work is specifically on the influence of teacher factors on students academic achievement in basic technology. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation.

Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Operational definition of terms is defined as a statement of the procedures or way in which a researcher is going to measure behaviours of qualities. The operational term would frequently be used in the research work. Definition of the terms is very important for full understanding of the whole study.

Teacher Qualification

Teacher Qualification means attributes of teacher that reflect their competence for effectiveness in teaching learning process. For example, their professional qualification their experiences and communicative competence means influencing one variable over another as a result f treatment

Student’s Academic Performance:

Knowledge and skill of student at the end of teaching-learning process, in particular, their achievements in the SSS basic science paper.

Professional Teacher:

Teacher with teaching certification in basic science e.g. B.A. Ed/B.Ed home economic M.ED MA.Ed Learning disabilities is a generic term that refers to an heterogeneous group of disorder that manifest in children in various forms.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

This study analyzed teacher factors influencing students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State and found that teacher’s administration of students’ assignments, teachers’ commitment to duty, and teacher-students interaction were poor and as such could not significantly influence students’ academic performance. It was further found that teachers’ communication skills were good and influenced students’ academic performance, but that teachers had excessive workload that impinged their influence on students’ academic performance. The study found that teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State poorly attend to students’ assignments, which is a negative drag on students’ academic performance. The study revealed that while some teachers gave very few assignments, others gave quite a good number without bothering whether or not students completed the assignments, yet many others did not score the assignments and thus did not give any feedback to students. Assignments are a critical ingredient for teaching and learning as they serve as a diagnostic tool for the teaching-learning process Supporting the results of this study, Molokomphale and Mavis (2014) declared that the non-scoring of exercises given to students by teachers smacks of lack of commitment to duty and makes it very difficult, if not impossible, for teachers to know if the students have mastered the skills taught or achieved the instructional objectives stipulated. Teachers’ workload was found to significantly influence students’ academic performance. The results showed that in some schools while the teacher-students ratio was up to 1:120, in other schools one teacher taught up to three subjects and several classes. Summarily, it was found that the teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State had excess workload that impinged on their performance (which negatively influenced students’ academic performance). The finding agrees with Nwikina and Nwanekezi (2010) who concluded that teachers’ workload was one of the factors that inhibited students’ academic achievement. Still supporting the results of this study, Rose and Sika (2019) declared that the negative impact of teachers’ excessive workload is real and needs to be addressed to improve students’ outcomes. These findings point to the negative impact of excessive workload for teachers on the teaching–learning process. Teacher- students interaction was found to be poor and that it does not have any significant influence on students’ academic performance. In a normal situation, teachers are expected to ensure that they are meet students’ needs, both academically and emotionally by creating learning environments that promote positive cultures with healthy interaction, as it can induce students to channel their educational goals appropriately (Aboho, Dodo, & Isa, 2014). The teacher-students interaction includes, among other things, teacher-pupil questioning, class work, take home assignments, marking of these work and providing prompt feedbacks, and friendliness of teachers and learners. This was found to be lacking in public secondary schools in Rivers State.

The study found that teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State have good communication skills, which influence students’ academic performance to high extent. Communication skills involve listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. For effective teaching, a teacher needs to be highly skilled in all these areas. Teachers with good communication skills always make learning easier and more understandable for students. McCarthy and Carter (2001) corroborated this finding when they declared that teachers’ communication skills are important for teachers in the delivery of education to students. Additionally, Batenburg and Smal (1997) averred that good communication is not only needed for effective teaching and learning, but it is also very important in the effectiveness of every human concern in life.

Teachers’ commitment to duty was found to be at its lowest ebb. The implications were, among others, that syllabuses were not completed on schedule, teachers were mostly late to duty, class presentations were predominantly rushed, and assignments were not attended to: All these will doubt negatively influence students’ academic performance. In line with the results of this study, Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) indicated that lack of motivation of teachers and professional commitment produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students which in turn affect the performance of students academically.


5.2 Conclusions

The findings of this study have shown that teacher’s administration of students’ assignments, teachers’ commitment to duty, and teacher-students interaction were poor and as such could not positively influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State. It was further found that teachers’ communication skills were good and influenced students’ academic performance, but that teachers had excessive workload that impinged their influence on students’ academic performance.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the results of this study, the following recommendations are put forward:

  1. Teachers should adequately motivated through good salary structures, in-service training, awards for excellence and punishment for truancy to enhance the teachers’ commitment to duty which will, among others,
    • Make them punctual to duty
    • Cause to prepare adequately for their lessons
    • Enable them effectively administer students’ assignments
  2. Teachers’ workload should be made appropriate (teacher-students ratio of 1:40; not more than 3 lessons of 1½ hours per week; etc.). This will enable them
    • Prepare adequately for their lessons
    • Enable them effectively administer students’ assignments
    • Improve teacher-students interaction
  3. Teachers’ administration of students’ assignments and teacher-students interaction should be improved upon through adequate motivation of teachers and making lighter teachers’ workload.

Influence Of Teacher Factors On Students’ Academic Achievement In Basic Technology


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Influence Of Teacher Factors On Students’ Academic Achievement In Basic Technology


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the importance of Teacher’s behaviour?

Half of students indicated that important qualities of teacher’s Behavior were punctuality, honesty, hardworking, friendly, confident and competency. Study showed that there is a significant correlation between the teachers’ behavior and academic achievement in students of Hyderabad universities.

How should teachers react to students’ comments?

Teachers also need to be thoughtful in the way in which they react to students’ comments. Generally, teachers react by using praise, acceptance, remediation, or criticism in responding to students (Derk, 1974).

What is Walberg’s theory of academic achievement?

Walberg’s theory of academic achievement posits that psychological characteristics of individual students and their immediate psychological environments influence educational outcomes (cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal) (Reynolds & Walberg, 1992).

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