Influence Of Teacher Factors And Parental Involvement On Students Academic Performance In Economics In Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

Influence Of Teacher Factors And Parental Involvement On Students Academic Performance In Economics In Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria


Abstract


This study examined the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement on students academic performance in economics in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the ex-post facto type. 250 respondents comprising of fifty (50) teachers and two hundred (200) students were sampled using convinient sampling technique. The instruments used for data collection were “Influence of Teacher Factors and Parental Involvement on Student Academic Performance in Economics” (TFPISAPSE) and Student Achievement Test (SAT). Six hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analysed using frequency count, simple percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The variables that contributed significantly to student achievement in Mathematics and English are teacher factors (teacher experience, classroom management skill, and class control and planning of instruction skills). The strongest predictor of student academic performance was teacher teaching experience (Beta= 0.518, t= 2.733, p<0.05), followed by teacher requisite skills: [classroom management, class control and planning of instructions] (Beta= 0.291, t= 2.021, p<0.05), while other variables (parental involvement, teacher qualification and teacher adequacy) are not potent predictors of student academic performance. These findings can be used to guide planners on the need for qualified teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria and a greater academic progress can be achieved by students if their parents are conscious of the fact that there is a lot, they can do to bring to reality their goals and aspiration for their children.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a very important human activity. It helps any society fashion and model individuals to function well in their environment. In particular, secondary education is an important sector in national and individual development because it plays a vital role in creating a country’s human resource base at a level higher than primary education.

In Nigeria, it is no longer a thing of debate that to sustain high quality of education of economic students in secondary schools, teachers qualification must be among the top priorities. An uncertified teacher cannot prepare students for WASCE/GCE in Economics because it is unlikely that they could pass. Corroborating this, Owolabi (2007) stated that government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system. The Baguada Seminar Reports on Quantities and Qualities in Nigerian Education (NERC, 1980) as cited by ESA (2005) also shared the consensus that teachers are the main determinants of quality in education. If they are apathetic, uncommitted, uninspired, lazy, unmotivated, immoral and anti-social, the whole nation is doomed. If they are ignorant in their disciplines and thus impart wrong information, that would lead to goal displacement. Therefore, the kinds of teachers trained and posted to schools to handle critically subjects like Economics may well determine what the next generation will be like.

On the same vein, the home is very germane and crucial to a child’s well- being and development in later life. Parents are the most immediate relation of a child (Chris, 2009). This is because parent in the home are children’s first teacher. As a child moves from infant to toddler and then to a pre-schooler, he learns how to speak, listen, write and read which latter develop the child to achieve academically. The influence of parents on children school achievement is well documented in numerous studies. Gadsden (2003) says greater parental involvement at early stage in children’s learning, positively affects the child’s school performance including higher academic achievement. In a related finding, Atanda (2014) discovered significant influence of democratic parenting style on students’ academic performance. This emphasizes the significant role of parents in their children’s academic progress. Meanwhile, Wright, Horn and Sanders (1997) concluded that the most important factor influencing student learning is the teacher.

Teachers stand in the interface of the transmission of knowledge, values and skills in the learning process. If the teacher is ineffective, students under the teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically. This is regardless of how similar or different the students are in terms of individual potential in academic achievement. Many teacher characteristics or factors elicit increased student performance. The focus of the present study will be: teacher quality, teacher planning skills, teacher gender, teacher teaching experience, teacher qualification, classroom management and teachers classroom management strategies. It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum. Without the teachers as implementing factors, the goals of education cannot be achieved. In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (FRN, 2013), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified teachers, libraries which are adequate also should be provided for schools. Scarcities of these, will constrain educational system from responding more fully to new demands. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement in students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The persistent poor performance of secondary school students in Economics(as well as other key subjects) in both internal and external examinations in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria, in the recent times has made the development of secondary education in the State a difficult task. Parents, guardians and other stakeholders in education industry have variously commented on the performances of secondary school students particularly in Economics among other key subjects. Observations and reports from examining bodies like WAEC and NECO revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in Economics. Despite the laudable efforts at improving students’ performance in core subjects like Economics in the state, it appears there has not been appreciable improvement over the years. This study therefore will investigate the influence of teacher factor and parental involvement on secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement on students academic performance in economics in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria.

Specifically, this study will;

  1. Ascertain whether parental involvement influences secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  2. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between teacher qualifications and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  3. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between teacher years of experience and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  4. Determine if there is a significant relationship between teacher requisite skills and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  5. Ascertain whether teacher factors and parental involvement will jointly influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  6. Find out whether teacher factors and parental involvement will relatively influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Does parental involvement influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between teacher qualifications and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between teacher years of experience and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?
  4. Is there a significant relationship between teacher requisite skills and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?
  5. Will teacher factors and parental involvement jointly influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?
  6. Will teacher factors and parental involvement relatively influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics?

1.5 Hypotheses

In the study, the following null hypotheses were tested:

  • Ho1: Parental involvement does not have influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  • Ho2: There is no significant relationship between teacher qualifications and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  • Ho3: There is no significant relationship between teacher years of experience and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  • Ho4: There is no significant relationship between teacher requisite skills and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  • Ho5: Teacher factors and parental involvement will not have joint influence on secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.
  • Ho6: Teacher factors and parental involvement will not have relative influence on secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help to enlighten or improve parents awareness on how crucial it is to support and participate in their children’s academic life. On the same vein, this study study will help to raise alarm on the need to ensure that qualified teachers are only employed in secondary schools in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement on students academic performance in economics. The study will geographically be delimited to selected secondary schools in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Parents

For the purpose of this study, parents include family members, siblings, guardians, aunts and uncles, and grandparents who are involved in school for the benefit of a specific student.

Teacher Qualification

This refers to the level of academic achievement of a teacher beginning from the level of teachers training to the level of in-service training.

Student Performance

This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement on students academic performance in economics in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of teacher factors and parental involvement on students academic performance in economics in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether parental involvement influences secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics; determine whether there is a significant relationship between teacher qualifications and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics; find out whether there is a significant relationship between teacher years of experience and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics; determine if there is a significant relationship between teacher requisite skills and secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics; ascertain whether teacher factors and parental involvement will jointly influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics; and find out whether teacher factors and parental involvement will relatively influence secondary school students’ academic performance in Economics.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 250 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are Economics teachers and students of senior secondary schools in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area Of Oyo State, Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

The study concluded that strongest predictor of students’ academic performance is teacher teaching experience, followed by teacher requisite skills, while other variables (parental involvement, teacher qualification and teacher adequacy) are not potent predictors of student academic performance in Ibadan South-West Local Government area of Oyo State. In addition, a greater academic progress can be achieved by students if their parents become conscious of the fact that there is a lot they can do to bring to reality their goals and aspiration for their children. The study discovered that teacher years of teaching experience and teacher requisite skills correlated positively and significantly with student academic performance. This implies that every effort should be made to keep the more experienced teachers in the service while the less experienced teachers are also encouraged to learn from the wisdom of practice of the veteran teachers; in addition, effective classroom management requires proactive and reactive teachers in order to define and communicate their social and academic expectations to their students.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should be encouraged to regularly attend workshops or seminars related to deepening teacher content knowledge, understanding students thinking and on how to assess students learning in their various subjects.
  2. Parents should be enlightened on the significance of the study of Mathematics and English in schools through the medium of the Parent Teachers Association (P.T.A) in order to provide material for them to benefit fully from the new education system.
  3. There is the need for teachers to be resourceful in instructional materials selection and utilization. This is to reduce the cost of production and maintenance of instructional materials, especially the improvised ones. Thus, regular training and retraining of teachers is hereby recommended.

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