Influence Of Study Habit And Attitude Among Secondary School Students Chemistry Achievement

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Influence Of Study Habit And Attitude Among Secondary School Students Chemistry Achievement


Abstract


The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State. The study investigated 8 measures or subscales of study habit as predictors of academic achievement in Chemistry which includes study period procedure, homework and assignment, time allocation, reading and note-taking, concentration and written work, and examination and teacher consultation. A total of 601 one Senior Secondary II science students participated in the study. The students were drawn through a stratified random sampling technique from 45 senior secondary schools in the study area. The instrument used for data collection was Students’ Study Habit Inventory (SSHI). The SSHI was adapted from Bakare 1977. Reliability coefficients of 0.78 which was obtained using Crombach coefficient Alpha, was established for SSHI.

The instruments were administered on the students for a period of four weeks by the researchers with the assistance of the Chemistry teachers. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. The finding of the study indicated that while the Chemistry students possessed fairly good study habits, study habit measure (subscales) like homework and assignment negatively predicted. The study recommended that school guardian and counsellors should take time to support Chemistry students and indeed all science students to build their ability and skills to concentrate during study and classroom learning. Training and guidance should be provided for teachers and students to enable them to enhance leaning through giving and doing homework and assignments in the right way. Teachers should create the atmosphere that enable students develop the habit of frequently consultation with teachers in order to improve their mastery of concepts in chemistry.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Concept of Study Habits
  • 2.3 Concept of Attitude
  • 2.4 Importance of Study Habits Constructs
  • 2.5 Students’ Perception and Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
  • 2.6 Concept of Study Habit and Academic Performance
  • 2.7 Characteristic of Students
  • 2.7.1 Characteristic of High Performing Students
  • 2.7.2 Characteristics of Low Performing Students
  • 2.8 Factors Influencing Students’ Attitude Towards Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
  • 2.9 Theoretical Review
  • 2.9.1 Theory of Social Cognitive Theory by Albert Bandura (1960)
  • 2.9.2 Self-Determination Theory by Edward L. D And Richard M.R (1975)
  • 2.9.3 Achievement Need Theory by J.W. Atkinson (1997)

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Sample Size and Technique
  • 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is an instrument that not only fills the missing links and gaps created due to a fast-paced life, but also creates general awareness about changing scenario. Education is the axis around which revolves the fullness of human being and education forms an effective means to improve the status of character of living patterns of the pupil, helps in intellectual, social and emotional development and enables them to meet their basic needs. Thus, education is an indispensable instrument for stability and progress of individual as well as society. In education, effective learning not only depends upon good teaching but also on satisfactory learning procedure i.e. good study habits.

Chemistry is taught in almost all Nigerian secondary schools today and one is expected to obtain a certain grade in SSCE or GCE to pursues his education. In a developing ‘ /’, country like Nigeria the role of science and technology is \ ‘ never in dispute. This has- informed the reason why poor performance of students in chemistry and other natural a sciences in the senior school certificate examinations (SSCE) in the last decade has been a major source of concern to parents, science educators, researches and the general public. Amulu (1991), stated that the inability of students to achieve success in chemistry have been pinned on their study habits. According to her attitudes are fundamental to the dynamics of behaviour and they are the determining factor of what the students learn. If a student has a positive attitude towards chemistry, he will not only enjoy studying it, but would derive satisfaction from the knowledge of chemistry ideas he gain but, it is unfortunate that many students hate chemistry. This apathy towards study of chemistry can be traced among other things to the instructional process and perhaps to the students study habits as it correlates to their achievement in chemistry.

Over the years, the issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all stakeholders involved. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria at large. Employers of labour no longer believe in the capacity of various educational institutions to provide graduates who are worth their salt or termed “employable”. Various issues have been pointed out as causative factors for this and one germane factor out of all is the issue of study habit.

According to Aristotle, habit is what we repeatedly do. Habits generate other habits. Inspiration is what gets us started, motivation is what keeps us on track, and habit is what makes us automatic. Anything we practice long enough becomes ingrained into our system and becomes a habit. Students are basically having their own individual differences. It all depends upon their ability and capacity. We do observe that some students have the habit of studying daily lessons regularly. Academic performance is defined as excellence in all academic discipline rather than fatalistically accepting it and competing against some standard of excellence (Chamundeswari 2014).

Study habits are defined as those techniques, such as summarizing, note taking, outlining or locating material which learners employ to assist themselves in the efficient learning of the material at hand. The term “Study Habit” implies a sort of more or less permanent method of studying. According to Good’s dictionary of education, “Study habit is the tendency of pupil to study when the opportunities are given, the pupil’s way of studying whether systematic or unsystematic, efficient or inefficient. “Study-habits are the essence of a dynamic personality. A proper study habits enables an individual to reap a good harvest in future.

Study habit is a process from which an individual gets proper input to feed his hunger and to quench his thrust for knowledge. The study habits thus are of great assistance to actualize the potentialities of the individual (Suresh 2013).

Study habits and skills are particularly important for undergraduate students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work privately. Azikiwe (1998) describes study habits as the way and manner a student plans his or her private reading outside lecture hours in order to master a particular subject or topic. Study habits help students master their areas of specialization.

Bakare (1977) in his study habit inventory pointed out eight key sources of poor academic performance. Study habit problems associated with student’s response to home work and assignments; reading and note taking and study period procedure; student’s concentration; towards examination and teachers’ consultation. The inability to utilize effectively and positively these sources of study problems may stand in the way of effective study and good performance among the students.

The relationship between study habit and students’ academic performance has for long has received attention from scholars and educational agencies. Nuthane & Yenage (2009) has examined the causes of poor academic performance among university undergraduates. Some of these factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habits, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, self concept, low socio- economic status of the family, poor family structure and so on.

The concept of study habit comprises the concept of study attitude, study method and study skill. Attitude towards study has great contribution in academic performance and good study pattern. Successful students adopt positive attitude towards study and do not waste time or energy. However, there are still myriads of cases of failure recorded, and then the question is what are the successful students doing differently from those who fail? Owing to this, there is the need to study the effect of study habits on academic performance. Thus, against the backdrop of this research, the researcher deemed it necessary to carry out this research on the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.


1.2 Statement of Problem

A great deal of research provides evidence that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables, which determine the academic performance of students. Yet, in spite of the perceived importance of study habits and study attitudes to academic performance, it seems that education institution still pay little attention to understanding these factors (Baquiran, 2011).Classroom observations show that under the same conditions, namely same professor, same subject, same teaching system, same administration, same enrollment criteria, same time of the day for an specific course and same education level, some students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best way to arrange the study process of multicultural groups of college students, so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations. Conditions, namely same lecturers, same course, same teaching system, same administration, same enrollment criteria, same time of the day for an specific course and same education level, some students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best way to arrange the study process of university undergraduates, so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations.

Hence, it is considered important to know what habits university undergraduates have and, in case of low-performing students, which of those habits need to be changed in order to improve performance. The importance of improving habits lays in their relationship with attitudes, which are deemed important for achieving high academic performance.

There is lack of consensus among researchers on the relatior-shin cL study habits of secondary school students. Although there are differing results about the relationship of poor study habits with the rate of learning. It is not certain the extent of relationship between study habit and students achievement in chemistry. Therefore the problem of this study posed a question in line with Amulu’s (1991) study that poor instructional material, poor chemistry background and lack of’ organization and presentation of chemistry content by teachers constituted a problem to the study of chemistry in secondary schools. The high rate of failure is indeed a source of worry to all and sundry. The curiosity to proffer solutions to these problems resulted in the choice to undertake the study on this topic, the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State,


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the effect of study period procedure on secondary school students chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  2. To find out the effect of the homework and assignment on secondary school students chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  3. To determine the effect of time allocation to study on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  4. To determine the effect of reading and note-taking on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  5. To determine the effect of concentration and written work on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  6. To determine the effect of examination and teacher consultation on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher formulated the following research questions based on the research objectives:

  1. What is the effect of study period procedure on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?
  2. What is the effect of the homework and assignment on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?
  3. What is the effect of time allocation to study on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?
  4. What is the effect of reading and note-taking on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?
  5. What is the effect of concentration and written work on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?
  6. What is the effect of examination and teacher consultation on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State?

1.5 Hypothesis

  1. HO1: There is no significant effect of study period procedure on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  2. HO2: There is no significant effect of homework and assignment on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  3. HO3: There is no significant effect of time allocation to study on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  4. HO4: There is no significant effect of reading and note-taking on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  5. HO5: There is no significant effect of concentration and written work on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.
  6. HO6: There is no significant effect of examination and teacher consultation on secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of significance to many as to who may want to understand the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State. Therefore, the study is significant in this regard.

  1. It attempts to combine study skills with study habit and how they both affect academic performance of students.
  2. It will provide valuable information about the effects of poor study habit (in terms of study period procedure, homework and assignment, time allocation, reading and note-taking, concentration and written work, and examination and teacher consultation) on the academic performance of students.
  3. It will serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out research in the related field.

The researchers believes that students, particularly University student will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviors related toothier studies influenced study habits. Lastly, this study will contribute to future research in related areas of study.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study centers on the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

It was in the interest of the researcher to study the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State. However, due to limited resources paramount to the research, the researcher limited the study to Nasarawa State. It is worthy of note, the fact that, the findings of this study may not be applicable to other parts of the country or the globe. This is because different locations in Nigeria have various practices and norms that may influence students’ behaviour with regard to study habit and attitude. The researcher also worked on the assumption that the responses of all the respondents were correct and sincere. If otherwise, then the findings of this study may not be considered authentic following the same assumption.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Study Habit:

This is a behavior style that is systematically formed by students towards learning and achievement.

Study Skills:

These are peculiar strategies developed by the students in studying.

Academic:

This has been variously defined but for the purpose of this study, horn by (1991) define academic as that which has to do with school college studies or learning in other words designate the intellectual; aspect of education particularly the final subject deals with organized knowledge.

Academic Achievement:

This refers to the performance that falls within specified standard is usually called pass mark and the pass mark is score above average which student are considered having passed and below which students are considered having failed.

Chemistry:

The branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study was structured under five different chapters.

  • Chapter one is the introduction, which gives the background, statement of the problem, purpose, scope and significance of the study and organization.
  • Chapter two reviews the literature relating to the study area. This literature review will be analyzed under conceptual review, empirical review and theoretical Review.
  • Chapter three treats the methodology used to examine the study.
  • Chapter four discusses data analysis and the result of findings.
  • Chapter five highlights the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

The study broadly examined the influence of study habit and attitude among secondary school students’ chemistry achievement in Nasarawa State. Study habit is the behavioural styles that are systematically formed by students towards learning and academic achievement. Valuable time should be spent on studying. Good teaching method and good peer groups should be encouraged to bring out good reading culture in the students. The study evaluated the extent to which different study habit measure or subscales contribute to the academic achievement of science students in chemistry. These subscales include study period procedure, homework and assignment, time allocation, reading and note-taking, concentration and written work, and examination and teacher consultation. The result of the analysis of the students’ study habits shows that, apart from homework and assignment (Average Mean= 2.50), study period procedure (Average Mean = 2.50), students often engage in the habits used in measuring all the other 6 variables. Thus, students only sometimes engage in the activities used to measure their study habits in terms of Study Time Allocation, Reading and Note Taking, Written Works, Examination, Concentration and Teacher Consultation.


5.2 Conclusion

From the findings of the study, it could be concluded that: (a) the students are, generally, practicing study habits that may be adjudged fair except in some areas like teacher consultation. This implies that teacher consultation is not a habit common amongst science students, even when they run into difficulties in the course of their studies; (b) Students’ study habit significantly and positively contributes to students’ academic achievement in chemistry; (c) Homework and assignment. as subscales or measures, of study habit significantly and negatively contributes to students’ academic achievement in chemistry. The nature of homework and the way students carry out the homework and assignment could be the reason for the negative contribution of study habit to students’ achievement in chemistry. (c) While concentration contributes significantly to students’ achievement in chemistry, teacher consultation, written work, study period procedure positively contributed but not significantly to students’ achievement in chemistry.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the study findings, it was recommended that:

  1. School guardian and counsellors should take time to support Chemistry students and indeed all science students to build their ability and skills to concentrate during study and classroom learning.
  2. Training and guidance should be provided for teachers and students to enable them to enhance leaning through giving and doing homework and assignments in the right way.
  3. Teachers should create the atmosphere that enable students develop the habit of frequently consultation with teachers in order to improve their mastery of concepts in chemistry.

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