Influence Of Student Support Services On Students’ Academic Performance In College Of Education Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State
This study investigated the Influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti.
A total of 200 respondents were randomly selected from Ikere-Ekiti College of Education. An Instrument titled “Influence of Student Support Services on Students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISSSSAPQ)” was administered to the respondents in order to gather relevant data.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Statistics was used to test the four null hypothesis formulated and where the result of ANOVA showed a significant difference a post-hoc analysis was used to determine the group(s) that contributed to the significant difference. All null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings showed that the major factors that determine the academic performance of students in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti was “efficient student affairs unit in the college” with a mean score of 3.24, which ranked 1st , while the least factor was “ regular power supply in the college” with mean score of 21.77, which also ranked 21st.
The findings also reveled that there was no significant difference based on Gender, Age, Level and Schoo l. Based on the findings recommendations were made for implementation.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of Contents
- List of Table
- Background to the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Research Objectives
- Research Questions
- Research Hypotheses
- Purpose of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Scope and Limitation of the Study
- Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- Theoretical Framework
- Meaning of student Support Services
- Students Unpleasant Behaviour
- Influence of student Support Services on students’
- Academic Performance
- Conceptual Frame Work
- Appraisal of the Literature Review
- Research Design
- Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques
- Research Instrument
- Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
- Procedure for Data Administration and Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
- Summary of the Findings
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
- Discussion of the Findings
- Suggestions for Further Studies
List of Table
- Table 1: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on Gender
- Table 2: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on Age
- Table 3: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on NCE Level
- Table 4: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on School
- Table 5: Mean and Rank Order on the Respondents’ View on the influence of students Support Services On Students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
- Table 6: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value on the respondent’s view on Influence of Student support services on Students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
- Table 7: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing the respondents’ view on the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
- Table 8: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Showing the respondents’ view on the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in college of education, Ikere-Ekiti
- Table 9: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Showing the respondents’ view on the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
Background to the Study
Education as a socialization process has been variously defined by various authors and writers and all of them agree that it is the basis for development. Ogunlade (2011) defined education as the process of not just acquiring knowledge, but the acquisition of the art of utilization of knowledge. It is indeed a life-long process that aims at imparting the skills needed to live a purposeful life. In other words, it is a process by which a sound mind in a sound body is developed. Therefore, for education to be worthwhile, it must be able to produce a refined mind, body and soul. Hence, education is a crucial factor in the social, economic, political and technological development of any nation.
The importance of education is to impart knowledge in learners and expected short or long term benefit.
In this regard, education transforms an individual from the state of ignorance and underdevelopment to a completely new person who is knowledgeable, cultured, well developed and self realized. It refers to social economic and political change, which make an individual to adapt to various changes in the environment such as technological and scientific change (Oyedeji, 2012; Jessica,2010)
Nigerian higher educational institutions are established with the aim of giving any student who enrolls a very sound qualitative education to be able to function effectively in any environment in which he/she may find himself/herself, so as to become more productive, self-fulfilling and attain self-actualization.
Colleges of Education, according to the objectives of their establishment, are meant to produce well-qualified teachers for the lower forms of secondary schools and the upper classes of primary schools (Ukeje 1996, NPE 2004).
Colleges of Education to award the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) to School certificate holders after three years of successful training. NCE candidate spends three (3) years with Teaching Practice expirence. The Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that the NCE will ultimately become the minimum qualification for teaching in the Nation. This implies that all primary school teachers must possess the NCE before they can be allowed to teach at that basic level. The year 1998 was set as the target date for realizing this policy objective but it was not realized. As at that date according to Ajayi (2007) over 40% of our primary school teachers were yet to be professionally qualified, many of them still possessed the teachers Grade II Certificate especially in the Northern part of the country. Again, the target date was shifted to 2006, yet, the target was not met.
In the coming years, this policy thrust poses great challenges to our teacher preparation programme.
Section 9 of the National Policy on Education stated the purpose of Teacher Education as followings:
- To provide highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system
- To encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers
- To help teachers fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objectives.
- To provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world.
- To enhance teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.
Nigerian Colleges of Education are finding it extremely difficult to achieve the highlighted goals because of the myriad of problems that are confronting them. These difficulties are largely due to the problems which students who enroll in these institutions either face or cause irrespective of their family background. This problem ranges from cultism, examination malpractices and a host of other anti-social behaviours.
It is a general belief that in the administration of College of education, students have one problem or the other as far as their academic work is concerned. To solve these problems, there is need for the establishment of well organized student support services. Student support services aims at providing some services to the students so as to enhance their learning process. These services includes: regular supply of water, electricity, accommodation, transportation, health, catering service, guidance and counselling services.
Student support services are provided in order to encourage positive thinking and actions that would compliment the attainment of their academic pursuit and choices of future career among the students. The importance of student support services cannot be over-emphasized in the socio-economic life of the student. Those services are provided to find out student problems so as to proffer appreciable solution to the problems. The Guidance and counselling services are the core–service of the students support services.
Also, a well equipped clinic will equally contribute to the health care of the students as it will help to solve their health problems. Adequate provision of water and electricity will enhance their wellbeing on campus, provision of catering services and accommodation is of great importance to the students.
If the above services and other services are satisfactorily provided, the academic performance of the students will
yield positive result, it will also influence positive response from the students in terms of their performance. That is, their performance would be in agreement with the norms of the services provided by the institution. Inadequate provision of the above services might lead to poor academic performance and unruly behaviour among the students, such as riot, unhealthy demonstration, destruction of school properties, break down of law and order thereby obstructing academic learning, hence leading to the closure of the school.
It can therefore be deduced that adequate provision of student support services plays a vital role in any higher institution as it helps to complement effective teaching and learning as well as students welfare on the campus. It is in the light of this, that this study seeks to examine student support services and its influence on academic performance of the students in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
Statement of the Problem
Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria are facing myriad of problems of which students in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti are also included. The problems range from poor or irregular water supply, inadequate hostel accommodation, poorly equipped school library to poorly equipped health centre.
Similarly, irregular water supply is one of the major problems faced by the students of college of education Ikere- Ekiti. During the dry season especially, most of the student will have to wake as early as 4 0’ clock in the morning and go into the town to fetch water, while they were suppose to be awake to read their books. Because of the daily stress most of them pass through in search for water, it becomes almost impossible for many of them not to be weak and lack concentration in the class during lectures and consequently this have negatively affected their academic performances.
However, it has also been asserted that inadequate hostel accommodation is one of the causes of poor performances among the students of College of Education Ikere-Ekiti. This was further proven when some students in the same institution attested that seven or eight of them were swaddled in a room meant for four students. Consequently, this unhealthy situation has caused catalogues of misunderstanding among the students, between the students and the school management and also leads to students unrest and rioting in the school which in turn have aborted their aims of enrolling in the same institution and their performances is nothing to write home about.
Furthermore, poor transportation services provided to the students have also affected their academic performances negatively. This is because the buses provided to convey the students to the school are inadequate, while most of them that live off campus complained bitterly that they do trek more than one hour every day before they could get to the lecture rooms and the service they paid for were not adequately provided to them.
Poor electricity supply is another bottleneck that have affected academic performances of the students of College of Education Ikere-Ekiti. Since the students are faced with constant epileptic power supply and most of them cannot afford to buy kerosene lamps, they are only left with the option of studying in the day time, while they use the whole night to sleep when they were suppose to be awake to read their books.
Not only that, the school library that is poorly furnished has immensely affected the academic performances of the students of College of Education Ikere-Ekiti, this is because enviable materials which the students needs to get solid or vital information for research during and after school examination and also for research project are not adequately provided. Hence, the students are left alone to wonder about in search for such materials and in most cases they do not get them.
Finally, poor health services which cannot be overlooked have also been seen as one of the major causes of poor academic performances of the students of College of Education in Ikere-Ekiti. In a normal school system the students has free access to medical services in the school, at least the medical center must provide health services round the clock, seven days in a week so that students suffering from one ailment or the other can be provided with drugs in respect to such ailment as suffered. But these services are not adequately provided and its consequences tell negatively on the academic performances of the students.
The importance attached to student support services in school administration made the researcher to extend the frontiers of knowledge by examining student support services and students’ academic performances in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
Based on the statement of problem ,the following objetives are raised
- To investigate the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti
- To identify the student support services available and effective at College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
- To make adequate suggestion that will improve the workability of the student support services on the academic performance of the students in the college.
On the basis of the study objectives outlined above, five questions were formulated. These are:
- What is the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti?
- Is there any difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of Gender?
- Is there any difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of Age?
- Is there any difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of NCE Level?
- Is there any difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of School?
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
There is no significant relationship between student support services and its influence on academic performance of student in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
- HO1: There is no significant difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of Gender.
- HO2:There is no significant difference in the influence of student support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of age.
- HO3: There is no significant difference in the influence of students support services on students’ performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of level.
- HO4 There is no significant difference in the influence of student support services on students’ performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti on the basis of School.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between student support services and its influence on the students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
Also to find out if inadequate provision of the student support services is significantly influencing the students’ academic performances in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
The study also aims at determining the adequacy or inadequacy of students support services that are provided in the College of Education.
Finally to find solutions to problems of student support services in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti and to give recommendation based on the research findings.
Significance of the Study
The relevance of the study is that the findings would be of immense benefit to the management of the College of Education in order to understand the present state of student support services and it influence on the academic performance of students towards those services with the aims of improving on the services.
This study would assist in finding solution to the problems of students’ academic poor performance through effective and efficient provision of student support services.
The result obtained from this study can possibly prompt government and the College authority to take and implement decisions that would help improve the student support services which in turn would help influence the academic performance of the students in desirable manner.
Finally, the out-come of this study would be of use to those who may wish to research into this study in future.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study will examine the relationship between student support services and it’s influence on students’ academic performances in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti. The population comprised the 7825 students on the campus, while the sample comprised 200 students. Student support services (Independent Variable) have the following indicators, namely Provision of guidance and counselling services, provision of water supply, accommodation, libraries, school clinics and other services. While academic performance (dependent variable),could also be determined based on the services provided by the school management. Such services also include counselling services, guidance services, provision of water supply, accommodation, libraries, school clinic etc
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study the following terms were operationally defined.
Student Support Services:
These are out-of-classroom services designed to make classroom work effective so that each student might fully realize his or her potential, such as greater performances, better reading, comprehension and so on.
Is used to describe things that relate to the work done in schools, colleges and universities, especially work which involves studying and reasoning rather than practical or technical skills
The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
The power to change or affect someone or something: the power to cause changes without directly forcing them to happen: a person or thing that affects some or something in an important way.
Most people know that academic performance generally refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies, but there are quite a number of factors that determine the level and quality of students academic performance grades.
Certainly the most well known indicator of academic performance grades are the students “score’’ for their classes and overall tenure.
It would be difficult to perform well in class if the student doesn’t attend. In public grade schools, attendance is compulsory and numerous unexcused absences may lead to notifying the students’ parents, barring or make-up work for missed assignment and tests or direct effects on grades.
It would also be difficult for the students to perform well in the class if the school management did not provide necessary service.
This can be described as the state of discontent or trouble making by the students such as riot, violent demonstration on campus amidst the students.
Can be defined as a form of organization in which activities of members are exclusively kept away from the knowledge or view of others.
Can be described as the act of cheating in an examination by the students. Using micro-chips (expo), copying from others popularly known as giraffe in an examination hall.
This can be defined as having sexual intercourse with the male/female students without his/her consent. Also rape can be described as the un-lawful compelling of a person through physical force or duress to have sexual intercourse.
This can be defined as un-pleasant behaviours shown by the students that are inimical to the progress of the institution. Such as student unrest, cultism, examination malpractices, demonstrations and so on. In other words, anti-social behaviours can be seen as negative behaviour or social disorders.
The term guidance in every language has always carried the connotation of help given to an individual or group of individuals in areas of personal, social, educational and vocational concerns. From the school point of view, guidance can be defined as a total programme of highly specialized activities, implemented by all staff members to help individual make wise intelligent choices and decisions.
Can be defined as “ the process in which one person assists another person in a person-to-person or face-to-face encounter’’. This assistance, may take many forms such as: educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional and moral. Also, counselling can be defined as “an enlightened process whereby people help people by facilitating growth, development and positive change through an exercise of self understanding’’
Guidance and Counseling Services:
This can be conceived as advisory services given to students either as individual or as a group to assist them in solving their problems, and adjust meaningfully to the environment.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
The study investigated the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State. The study also examined the influence of moderating variables of gender, age, level and school type on participants view on influence of students support services on students’ academic performance. The results of the study have been presented using relevant statistical methods. This chapter thus deals with the discussion of findings, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study. Suggestions for further study will as well be made as a guide for future researchers in the same field of study.
Discussion of Findings
The findings of the study revealed that provision of efficient student affairs unit, involvement in decision making on issues affecting students’ welfare and adequate guidance and counselling services as support services that will go a long in improving academic performance of students in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State. Students affairs unit is one of the important units in any institution of higher learning because it aims at proffering appropriate solution to the problems facing the students in the academic and outside academic environments, and work assiduously to impact or inculcate discipline in students so that they can graduate with both learning and character, thereby, being useful to themselves and the society at large. In view of this, provision of student affairs unit will enable students to lodge any complain that may hinder their academic pursuit to the appropriate quarters and work on how such students can be helped to perform effectively in their study. Whitt (2005) stated that student affairs staff are full partners in the educational enterprise, creating enriching educational opportunities for students, team teaching with faculty and helping students manage various transitions. The finding of this study is similar with the finding of Peltier (2014) which revealed that students affair unit has greater influence in the college students’ academic performance, however, participants (faculty staff) in the study were unaware and uninformed as to the role of the student affairs division.
The second finding was that students’ involvement in decision making on issues affecting their welfairsm can improve their academic performance. Given students the opporunity to involve in decision making about their welfarism can build the spirit of unity and oneness among them and create trust in students towards the college administration, thereby, working towards ways of improving students’ academic performance. Students (when involved in decision making) can also play a crucial role in assisting one another with questions and concerns related to academic progress, social adjustment and to other areas related to their well-being. This finding is similar with the finding of Ahiatrogah and Koomson (2007) which found that distance education students’ perception of their involvement role is high in the college decision making. However, the perceived role expectation was found to be the least potent contributor to academic performance of distant education (DE) student leaders.
The third finding emphasised the relevance of adequate guidance and counselling services to students’ academic performance. School guidance and counselling services is one of the pillars upon which students’ academic success depends. It is relevant to students’ educational, vocational and personal-social endevours. A well-functioning counselling service in the school system can contribute substantially to not only the academic success of the students, but also other areas of life in which the students might need adjustment. A vigorously pursued guidance and counselling programme can help educate students about mental health, wellness and help students create a more balanced life, through organisation of workshops on such topics like stress and time management, assertiveness skills training, financial wellness, creating and maintaining healthy relationships. This finding supports the finding of Njeri (2007) which revealed that guidance and counselling programme, as a supportive service, has a positive impact on the academic performance of students.
The first hypothesis showed a significant difference in the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State on the basis of gender. This means that the opinion of male participants is different from their female counterparts on influence of students’ support services on students’ academic performance. The mean value (64.57) favours the male students, which implies that they are more concern about and agitating for the provision of support services for the students in the college. This finding supports the finding of Ahiatrogah and Koosom (2007) which revealed difference in the respondents’ perception of student involvement role on the basis of gender.
The second hypothesis showed that there was no significant difference in the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State on the basis of age. This implies that age difference among the college students has no influence in their view of influence of support services on academic performance. The implication of this finding is that every students regardless of their age difference are supportive of effective students support services for the facilitation of their academic performance in College of Education so that can be able to fit in furthering their education or in discharging their responsibilities effectively as teachers. This finding is in line with the finding of Ahiatrogah and Koomson (2007) which revealed similar view of respondents on leadership involvement role regardless of age difference.
Hypothesis three revealed that there was no significant difference in the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State on the basis of level. This means that difference in the level of college students has no influence on their view of influence of students support services on their academic performance. This is an indication that all students in the school system have similar thought, feelings, beliefs and perception towards the relevance of provision of students support services to their academic success. This finding is tandem with the finding of Ahiatrogah and Koomson (2007) which found students’ level to play no role in their leadership involvement.
Hypothesis four revealed that there was no significant difference in the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State on the basis of school. This implies that difference in respondents’ school or faculties has no influence on their view of influence of students support service on academic performance. This follows that students support services are meant for every school in the college as they all need guidance and support for their academic success.
The findings of the study have revealed that support services would influence students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State with the provision of efficient student affairs unit, students’ involvement in decision making on issues affecting their welfare and adequate guidance and counselling services. Based on the null hypotheses tested, it was found that there was significant difference in the influence of students’ support services on their academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State on the basis of gender, while no significant difference was found based on age, level and school type.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that:
- Counsellors in the college should respond to students need as when due, they should encourage through their behaviour and attitude the students to for seek counselling in order solve their concern and organise, on a regular bases, sensitization programmes that can educate students on how to improve in their academic performance. This can be done using a placard for counselling advert or Departmental, Faculty or College orientation programmes.
- Counsellors should also equip college students with relevant social skills such as assertiveness, communication and study habits skills that can help them to improve in their academic performance and assist them to cope with the challenges lie ahead after school life.
- Counsellors should also recognised the fact that there would be difference in the needs of male and female students; hence, due attention should be paid to the fulfillment of each student peculiar needs and seek appropriate help from the college administrators should they find it uneasy meeting such needs. This will facilitate effective academic performance of all students without gender bias.
- The authority or administrative head in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State should provide empower their student affairs unit in the college so that they can be able to attend to students’ needs appropriately and adequately, thereby, creating an enabling environment and opportunities that can contribute positive to students’ academic performance.
- The school administrators should endevour to include the representative from the students union in their senate meetings when it comes to making an important decision concerning students educational needs so that relevant supportive services can be provided for that will facilitate positive academic performance of the students.
- The administration should give due recognition to school guidance and counselling services by creating a functional counselling and human development center, equip it will competent staff and efficient resources that will enable such counsellors to discharge relevant supportive services (personal –social and academic) for the students, thereby, contributing immensely to their positive academic performance in the college.
- The students’ affairs unit, school administrators, counselling unit and students union wing should collaborate in providing effective support services for students in the college. This will help them in developing a common understanding of institutional goals and in providing structures to support collaboration.
Suggestions for Further Study
The study investigated the influence of students support services on students’ academic performance in College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State. The study also examined the influence of moderating variables of gender, age, level and school type on participants view on influence of students support services on their academic performance. A single study cannot do it all; hence, more empirical studies are needed in the area of students support services. In view of this, researchers could further conduct relevant studies on relevance of students support services on social-personal adjustment of College of Education students in Ikere, Ekiti State. Such a study could be made to cover the Colleges of Education in Ekiti State or extend it tertiary institutions in the state (this will include the University, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education students). This will give room for increasing the number of participants and improve of the generalizability of the findings of the study. It could also be interesting to look at the relationship between the patterns of students support services and administrative support for school guidance programmes in order to understand the type of guidance and counselling services available and the impact of the authorities in ensuring that students benefit from these services. This will go a long way in institutionalizing a fundamental guidance and counselling centers in higher institutions of learning to help students perform better in their academic pursuits.
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