The Influence Of Stress On Work Behavior Among Nurses
Occupational stress can no longer be considered an occasional, personal problem to be remedied with palliatives. It is becoming an increasingly global phenomenon, affecting all categories of workers, all workplaces and all countries of which nurses of Federal Medical Centre Abeokutaare not exceptional. In line with such an approach, this research is aimed at accessing the effect of stress on performance of nurses at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta. Data for the study was gathered from both primary and secondary sources.
A sample size of 70 nurses was selected using systematic random sampling method. Empirical results from the data indicate that workload, Conflict among colleagues and supervisors are other major causes of stress in nurses at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta. It was established from the research that stress affects output, quality of work which leads to client dissatisfaction of nurses. Therefore, stress has negative relation with the performance of nurses.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance Of The Study
- 1.6 Scope Of The Study
- 1.7 Limitations Of The Study
- 1.8 Definition Of Terms
Review Of Related And Relevant Literature
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Conceptual Clarifications
- 2.3 Theoretical Studies
- 2.4 Empirical Studies
- 2.5 Related Literatures
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Study Area
- 3.3 Sources Of Data
- 3.4 Population Of The Study
- 3.5 Sample Size Determination
- 3.6 Instrumentation
- 3.7 Reliability And Validity Of Instrument
- 3.8 Method Of Data Analysis
Data Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Data Analysis
- 4.3 Data Interpretation
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background Study
Every work environment especially within a hospital setup needs to be conducive, friendly and stress free to promote quality care and wellbeing of health care workers whose job demands are increasing day by day. This is as a result of advancement in technology and patient’s demand for quality in response to increasing health care cost. Stress is considered a normal part of life which is necessary occasionally as a push to increasing functional capacity, but when it is experienced over a prolonged period it becomes detrimental to health leading to a decline in productivity ( Salleh, M.R., 2008) .
Stress can be defined as a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is assessed by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being (Irving, J.A. et al., 2009). Stress on its own does not have any damaging effect on an individual; however individuals’ assessment of an event, their perceptions and interpretations give meaning and their coping ability determines whether events are viewed as threatening or positive. Personality traits also influence individual reaction to stress because what may be strenuous to one person may be stimulating to another (Robinson, M. D. et al., 2011).
As far back as the mid-1950s, stress was regarded as an occupational hazard and occupational stress cited as a significant health problem (Jennings, B.M., 2009) while in the 1960s, patient’s care, decision making, taking responsibility, and change were identified as sources of anxiety among nurses which predisposed them to work stress (Menzies, 1960). Nurse’s role has long been regarded as stress-filled based upon the physical labor, human suffering, work hours, staffing, and interpersonal relationships that are central to what the work nurses do (Lukpata, F. E. et al., 2013).
This stressful nature of nursing can ultimately lead to job dissatisfaction and burnout (Arafa, M.A., 2003). This statement is in line with some studies which conclude that the provision of health care services is demanding both physically and psychologically ( Ilhan, M.N., 2005). Nursing occupies a conspicuous position among the professions that have been identified as the most stressful worldwide as nurses relate with humans mostly in times of pain, suffering and death (Lukpata, F .E. et al., 2013).
Nurses work tirelessly rendering care to critically and chronically ill patients who are between life and death in an environment where there is lack of tolerance for error (Rowe, J., 2003), all these can exert intense psychological and physical pressures on the health care giver leading to stress or burn out syndrome.
Among health care professionals, nurses have been found to be most prone to burnout (Abushaikha, L. and Saca-Hazboun, H., 2009). This is more so because nurses are expected to deliver humane, empathetic, culturally sensitive, proficient and moral care, in working environments with limited resources, reduced supply of nurses and increasing responsibilities. Such imbalance between providing high quality care within an environment of limited resources leads to stress (Khamisa, N., 2015).
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Job satisfaction and burnout among health care providers are important issues since they affect turnover rates, staff retention and ultimately the quality of patient care (Atencio, 2003). Burnout has been defined as “a syndrome of physical and emotional exhaustion, involving the development of stress which can lead to the development of negative self-concept, negative job attitudes and loss of concern for clients”. Burnout has also been associated with high employment turnover, excessive absenteeism, negative job attitudes, low morale and a reduction in willingness to help others (Abushaikha, L. and Saca-Hazboun, H., 2009).
The way that an individual views and processes stress determines how much stress is felt and how close the person is to burnout. Perceptions of job stress and burnout are not just a product of work conditions because not all workers, exposed to the same conditions, develop burnout or perceive stress (Robinson, M. D. et al., 2011).
An individual can be exposed to few stressors but be unable to process the stress well and thus experience burnout. Another person, however, can be exposed to a significant amount of stressors, but process each well, and avoid burnout. How close a person is to a state of burnout is greatly dependent on individual differences (Truby, B., 2009)
According to psychological theories, stress is determined by the balance between the perceived demands from the environment and the individual’s resources to meet those demands (Ursin, H. and Eriksen, H.R., 2004)
The International Council of Nurses (ICN) (2008) declares that nurses, doctors, and laboratory technicians experience the highest job related stress with 45 percent reporting that their jobs are quite or extremely stressful. Likewise, the International Labour Organization has identified nursing as an industry with relatively. Theses problems make it necessary to examine the influence of stress on work behavior among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence of stress on work behavior among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta. The specific objectives are:
- To ascertain the causes of work stress among nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
- To determine the relationship between stress and job dissatisfaction among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
- To examine the effect of stress among nurses on the safety of patients Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
- To investigate the impact long working hours on the job performances of Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
- To know if work stress influences negative job attitude among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta.
1.4 Research Questions
The relevant research questions related to this study are:
- What are the causes of work stress among nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta?
- What is the relationship between stress and job dissatisfaction among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta?
- What is the effect of stress among nurses on the safety of patients Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta?
- What is the impact long working hours on the job performances of Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta?
- Does work stress influences negative job attitude among Nurses in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study is very important to medical directors because it elucidates some of the factors that are responsible for the poor performances of Nurses in hospital. The relationship between stress and the work behavior among nurses is well examined. Long working hours is one of the causes of work stress among nurses and its impacts on the productivity of nurses are well investigated.
This study also examines the ways of reducing work stress among nurses in hospital. If these measures are implemented, it will have impact on improving the safety of patients. Nurses who are stressed tend to be aggressive on patients and this affects the recuperation of patients.
The finding from this research can also be used as a reference material for other researchers who will likely carry out a study on a related topic
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study restricted to examining the influence of stress on work behavior among nurses in federal medical centre Abeokuta.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
Some of the major constraints the researchers encountered in putting up this research include lack of time, lack of willingness to give information by respondent and also limited resources
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.
Conclusion And Recommendation
In conclusion, it said that stress is a natural phenomenon that can be experienced by all human beings irrespective of gender or social status. Thus this subject matter must be well understood especially by management of organization such as FMCA, in order to have a good policy direction to help promote high performance among nurses in the hospital and other such health institutions.
Organizations may be hesitant to spend money for additional programs and staffing, but could be convinced if they were really made aware of the high cost of occupational stress due to increased absenteeism, compensation claims, risks of litigation due to errors, negativity and decreased patient satisfaction. Decreasing stress for nurses in the workplace is multifaceted (Rosenstein, 2002). The first step is for organizations to recognize, and accept that the work environment is responsible for much of the stress experienced by nurses, and not just something that nurses have to deal with of their own. Therefore, administrators must be committed to implementing changes that will help to minimize some of the known stressors of nurses. Nurses need to feel that they are involved in decision making especially related to patient care issues. Therefore a more decentralized democratic management approach would be beneficial and this is imperative to increase nurses‟ visibility in the workplace by establishing programs that recognizes their contributions.
From the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are made:
- Management of Federal Medical Center Abeokuta organizes seminars, workshops, fora for nurses that are targeted at specific sources of stress like conflict management, work load and others. This would aid staff of Federal Medical Center Abeokuta to plan measures to reduce stress among nurses.
- Stress reduction programmes that target some of the prevalent stressors could be organized for the supervisors in order to equip them to assist the nurses.
- Nurses should be equipped with stress coping skills, and introduced to other non-nursing related activities.
- Improving safe and secure environment at the hospital by providing adequate and good facilities.
5.3 Implications for counselling
- From the findings of the study it implies that being male or female does not really matter so far as stress is concerned. Counsellors are therefore to put in techniques that treat both sexes with equal attention in stress management.
- It was again deduced from the study that nurses of different age groups assume the same of stress or their stress types do not differ significantly. Counsellors should intensify their efforts at giving psycho-education to nurses on stress related issues.
- Counselling and training of supervisors in the field of administration as well as planning measures to improving interpersonal relationship among nurses in the hospital.
- Education of nurses for stress management and skilled training for conflict resolution and assertiveness will help to reduce stress among workers.
- Stress management programmes can be included in the curriculum of nursing training so that nurses who come out could manage their own stress in the future.
- Training in proper time management skills is important to enhance planning of work to avoid work-overload.
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